Flavor chemistry of Swiss cheese Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/8336h4639

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  • The unique flavor of high quality Swiss cheese is difficult to reproduce in commercial market cheese. Swiss cheese flavor has never been duplicated or thoroughly understood. New techniques and advances in flavor research have enabled better definition and understanding of food flavors. Therefore, it was desirable to make a detailed investigation of Swiss cheese flavor. Neutral volatile flavor compounds were isolated from Swiss cheese fat by low-temperature low-pressure distillation. The compounds were separated by temperature programmed gas chromatography. Direct analysis of cheese fat and whole cheese from four domestic and two imported good flavored cheeses by gas entrainment and on-column trapping provided a further means of isolation of volatile flavor compounds in Swiss cheese. Gas chromatography in conjunction with rapid scan mass spectrometry and relative retention time data were used to identify compounds. Compounds positively identified by the distillation and on-column trapping techniques were as follows: methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-pentanol, trans-2-hexene-1-ol, 2-phenylethanol, acetaldehyde, 2-methyl propanal, 2-methyl butyraldehyde, benzaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, acetone, butanone, 2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone, 2-tridecanone, 2-pentadecanone, hexane, octane, 1-octene, nonane, 1-nonene, dodecane, pentadecane, toluene, α-pinene, methyl acetate, methyl hexanoate, methyl octanoate, methyl decanoate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethyl dodecanoate, butyl acetate, 3-methyl butyl acetate, γ-valerolactone, γ-dodecalactone, δ-octalactone, δ-decalactone, δ-dodecalactone, dimethyl sulfide, diacetyl, benzothiazole, o-dichlorobenzene, 1, 2, 4-trichlorobenzene, di-isobutyl adipate, and chloroform. Compounds tentatively identified include an aromatic hydrocarbon, pinane, α-fenchene, ethyl benzene, a di-methyl benzene, methyl benzoate, 2-phenyl-2-methyl butane, 5-methyl-5-ethyl decane, 3-methyl butyl octanoate, 2, 5-dimethyl tetra decane, methyl vinyl ether and 2-methyl propenal. The concentration of selected volatile compounds identified by the on-column trapping technique were determined by relating their peak heights to known quantities of compound. Average concentrations calculated from the mean values for all the six cheeses and expressed in parts per million were as follows: dimethyl sulfide. 0.107; diacetyl, 0.8; acetaldehyde, 1.4; acetone, 1.6; butanone, 0.3; 2-methyl butyraldehyde, 0.42; 2-pentanone, 0.98; 2-heptanone, 0.45; ethanol, 16.3; 2-butanol, 0.3; 1-propanol, 2.9; 1-butanol, 0.7; methyl hexanoate, 1.5; and ethyl butanoate, 0.6. Liquid-liquid partition chromatography and gas chromatography were utilized to determine quantitatively the major free, fatty acids in the six Swiss cheeses. 2-Methyl butyric acid was detected in all cheeses and varied from 9.0 to 100.0 mg/kg cheese. The other isomeric acid, 3-methyl butyric, was detected in only two cheeses. Formic acid was detected in only one cheese. No n-valeric or 2-methyl propionic acids were detected. A synthetic Swiss cheese flavor was prepared utilizing the data obtained in this investigation and that available in the literature for free amino acids. A satisfactory reproduction of Swiss cheese flavor could be achieved only if the mixture contained free fatty acids, volatile constituents, and free amino acids and was adjusted to the pH of natural cheese.
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  • File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome) using Scamax Scan+ V.1.0.32.10766 on a Scanmax 412CD by InoTec in PDF format. LuraDocument PDF Compressor V.5.8.71.50 used for pdf compression and textual OCR.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-01-17T21:11:35Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 LANGLERJAMES1966.pdf: 716630 bytes, checksum: cf566cf81497b3fe0d989d59c82b8454 (MD5)
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