The production of surimi from Pacific whiting (Merluccius productus) and evaluation of kamaboko gels Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/8623j2128

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  • Yield, proximate composition, and proteolytic activity were determined in each unit operation during production of surimi from Pacific whiting. Preliminary studies involved the addition of protein adjuncts such as egg white (EW), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and soy protein isolate (SPI), at different levels, to kamaboko gels in order to select the main protein for further study. SDS-gel electrophoresis was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of egg white as a protease inhibitor in kamaboko gels. Yields obtained from planked fish (42.4%) and minced flesh (35.7%) agree with those values reported from other studies in whiting. A reduced washed flesh yield was expected since washing is done to remove those constituents not desirable in surimi. Lower yields resulted in the refined flesh (17.4%), and surimi (19.9%). Proximate composition values through the unit operations were similar with other studies done with whiting, and were compared with other fish species indicating acceptable nutritional quality. Deboned and washed flesh (first wash) were significantly different in protease activity from the flesh (second wash) and refined product (P<0.05). This demonstrates the importance of the washing process in surimi unit operations. Protein adjuncts (EW, WPC, and SPI) in kamaboko gels at levels of 1 to 5% were evaluated based on hardness, cohesiveness and elasticity. Addition of egg white at levels ranging from 3 to 5% resulted in greater hardness (P<0.05), and elasticity (P<0.005) in comparison with WPC and SPI. Therefore EW at 3% level was selected for additional study. Two stage heat treatments at 40°C at varying times followed by a 90°C for 20 min were tested with kamaboko gels containing 3% EW. No significant differences were found in hardness and elasticity compared to a one stage heat treatment at 90°C for 40 min (P<0.01). Based on this study, a one stage heat treatment was selected for the cooking of kamaboko gels. Potato starch at a level of 5% was also included in the following formulations due to its property to increase binding and elasticity. An increased hardness of 154% and elasticity 464% in kamaboko gels containing 3% EW was found compared to the control. An increase of 9% in hardness, and 23% in elasticity was found in gels containing 3% EW and 5% potato starch compared to gels containing only 3% EW. A significant difference was found in expressible moisture within the three formulations (P<0.03) due to the addition of the ingredients and their binding properties. Egg white proved to have an inhibiting effect on proteolytic activity in kamaboko gels. This was demonstrated by SDS gel-electrophoresis in which the myosin band was present in formulations containing 3% egg white and indicated that no enzymatic breakdown was taking place.
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