- The purposes of this investigation were: (l) To attempt to
determine how well programs of guidance services were felt to be
functioning in meeting the needs of pupils through an analysis of
guidance services in selected high schools in Oregon, and (2) To
develop recommendations for improving programs of guidance
services in secondary schools based upon the findings of this study.
The investigation focused on eight major areas of the total
guidance program in 46 Oregon high schools of three size-ranges:
Type 1, l, 000 or more pupils; Type 2, 500 to 999 pupils; and Type 3,
499 pupils or less. The analysis was based upon data secured
through rating scales and check lists. Rating scales were completed
and returned by four groups of respondents from each of the
schools. These four groups were: 44 principals for a 95 percent
return; 113 vocational instructors for an 81 percent return; 103
counselors for a 90 percent return; 3, 720 senior boys and 3, 247
senior girls, a total of 6, 967 pupils representing approximately 92
percent of all the seniors in these schools. One hundred fourteen
student rating scales were eliminated as not contributing to the study
and were not included in the total shown. Check lists of guidance
facilities and materials were completed for all 46 schools included
in this study. From the 7, 227 respondents and the data from the
checklists, the following findings were determined:
1. Type l schools rated their total programs of guidance services
as functioning 11 good 11 while Type 2 and Type 3 schools gave a
rating of "fair" to their total programs.
2. The findings showed the functioning of five of the eight major
areas of the guidance program were ranked in the same order by
all three types of schools.
3. The counselor-student ratio was found to be l: 382, 1:361, and
1:365 in schools of Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3 respectively.
The counseling space provided was considered adequate in the
schools of all three types. The clerical assistance for counselors
was considered adequate by 75 percent, 50 percent, and 40 percent
of the counselors in schools of Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3
respectively. Occupational and informational materials were
generally considered adequate in the schools of all three types.
4. Either the Basic Norm (4 year) or Standard Norm (5 year)
counselor certification is currently held by 55 percent, 48 percent
and 27 percent of the counselors in schools of Type 1, Type 2,
and Type 3 respectively.
1. That schools utilize organizations within the community for their
unique services to create a cooperative partnership and positive
publicity and establish guidance committees to advise and coordinate
the total team approach and up-grade this team through
z. That schools recognize orientation as a continuous service provided
for all pupils through pre- and post-admission practices.
A council of committees should plan and coordinate these various
activities. Group procedures should provide for needed learning
experiences, led by qualified personnel utilizing activities and
materials appropriate to the maturation of the pupils.
3. That schools follow a planned program of individual inventory
through an accurate, current record, which contributes to understanding
each pupil and maintaining a balance between testing
and other data-collecting methods. Intensive testing, with
accurate interpretation to individual pupils is preferred to
extensive testing with insufficient personal interpretation.
4. That schools utilize all persons who possess competencies to
give first-hand information to pupils, which is accurate and
current, or who can provide contact-experiences in educational,
occupational, and training opportunities. Placement assistance
should be extended within and without the school for present
pupils, school leavers, and graduates.
5. That schools pursue regularly scheduled studies of all former
pupils. A suggested sequence would be at one, two, and five
years following the pupil's departure.
6. That further research be undertaken to seek means of overcoming
weaknesses determined by this study. Special attention
should be given to follow-up services. The development of valid
criteria for the qualitative assessment through follow-up could
reveal inadequacies and suggest innovations for curriculum and