Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and immune responses in poultry Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/8c97kt480

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  • Three experiments were conducted to study the influence of dietary fatty acids on the production performance and immune response of chickens. In experiment I, forty day-old broiler chicks were fed diets containing 5% of either animal fat + conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (Diet I), sunflower oil (Diet II), flax oil (Diet III) or fish oil (Diet IV). No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between the live weight of birds. The liver tissue total fat content was lower (P<0.05) in treatment I and II. The fatty acid composition of breast and thigh muscle, liver, heart, pericardial fat, plasma, splenocytes and gut associated lymphoid tissue differed (P<0.05) between treatments. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of breast and thigh muscle, liver and heart tissue were lower (P<0.05) in Diet I fed birds. Serum antibody activity was decreased (P<0.05) in Diet II fed birds. In experiment II, 120 day-old broiler chicks were fed diets containing 3.5% of either animal fat + conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (Diet I), sunflower oil (Diet II), linseed oil (Diet III) or fish oil (Diet IV). Body weight gain was higher (P<0.05) in Diets III and IV compared to Diets I and II fed birds. Feed intake was increased (P<0.05) in Diet IV fed birds. Birds fed Diets III and IV had higher (P<0.05) n-3 fatty acids in all tissues studied. A preferential incorporation of CLA was observed in spleen mononuclear cells. TBARS were higher (P<0.05) in the breast and thigh muscle of Diet IV fed birds. Serum anti-BSA antibody content was higher (P<0.05) in birds fed Diets III and IV. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was increased (P<0.05) in Diets IV and III fed birds. Lymphocyte and spleen mononuclear cell CD4⁺, CD8⁺ and IgM⁺ cell population did not differ (P>0.05) among treatments. In experiment III, 120 layer birds were fed diets containing 3% of CLA+animal fat (Diet I), sunflower oil (Diet II), canola+flax oil (Diet III) or fish oil (Diet IV). Egg production, feed consumption and feed efficiency did not differ (P>0.05) among treatments. Birds fed Diets III and IV had higher content of n-3 fatty acids in eggs. Eggs from hens fed Diet I incorporated higher (P<0.05) CLA and saturated fatty acids with a concomitant reduction in (P<0.05) monounsaturated fatty acid content. A preferential incorporation of CLA was observed in eggs over other tissues. TBARS were higher (P<0.05) in breast and thigh muscle of Diet IV fed birds. Egg TBARS content did not differ (P>0.05) among treatments. Serum and yolk anti-BSA antibody contents were higher (P<0.05) in birds fed Diets III and IV. DTH response was increased (P<0.05) in Diets IV and III fed birds. Lymphocyte and spleen mononuclear cell CD4⁺, CD8⁺ and IgM⁺ cell population did not differ (P>0.05) among treatments. Feeding n-3 fatty acids increased antibody mediated immune response while n-6 fatty acids and CLA increased cell mediated immune response.
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