Biological and ecological aspects of the black flies of the Marys River drainage system (Diptera: Simuliidae) Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/8c97kv09h

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  • Members of the family Simuliidae were studied in a single, confined drainage system. In addition to determining the occurrence and distribution of the species present, biological and ecological observations were made. Specific measurements and observations were accomplished to determine as much as possible about the habitat specificity and life cycle characteristics of the simuliids present. Rearing and association experiments were also carried out on many species. Sixteen species representing four genera were studied. In addition, one series of Prosimulium specimens could not be identified definitely, and one new species of Simulium was found and studied. Adult emergence extended from early January to late November. Twinnia and Prosimulium representatives were generally the first black flies to emerge. Light appeared to be the primary limiting factor as to adult emergence in all species studied in detail. Males almost always emerged earlier than the females. All Twinnia, Cnephia, and Prosimulium species, and Simulium argus, S. canadense, S. pugetense, and S. tuberosum had one generation per year. S. articum, S. decorum, S. piperi, S. venustum, and S. sp. #1 all had two generations per year, and S. vittatum had three. Larval and pupal duration times were recorded for most species, and varied greatly. The effect of water temperature and velocity on these times could not be accurately determined. Although overwintering stages varied, most of the species studied passed the winter months in the egg. Oviposition was never observed, although determinations were made on egg deposition sites and conditions for four species. Drift of Prosimulium larvae was much greater than with the same stages of Simulium. Physical and biological conditions under which black fly immature stages flourished were extremely diverse. Both crayfish and predaceous caddisflies were very effective in maintaining minimal larval concentration levels in certain situations.
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