Heat and mass transfer in Kroll process titanium sponge during salt evaporation Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/8g84mp898

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  • Laboratory experiments were conducted to study those factors which control the rate at which salts, such as magnesium chloride and sodium chloride, are removed from titanium sponge. The sponge was prepared by reducing titanium tetrachloride with either magnesium or sodium, and the resulting sponge salt mixtures were treated by vacuum evaporation to remove the salts. As the temperature, bulk density, and surface to volume ratio of samples were varied, measurements were made of the rate of salt evaporation in a vacuum. A constant-rate and falling-rate period were observed during the drying process. An apparatus was constructed and measurements were made of the thermal diffusivity of titanium sponge compacts and industrial titanium sponge. A computer program was developed to incorporate experimentally determined data to simulate both heat and mass transfer during the salt removal process for an industrial sized sponge cake. The program yields transient concentration and temperature profiles throughout the sponge cake and shows the effect of controllable variables such as sponge geometry, reactor size and heat transfer boundary conditions. An estimate of the mass transport coefficient within a sponge block was made by comparing experimentally determined and computer calculated salt concentration profiles of partially distilled sponge compacts.
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