Transmission variation and loss of aphid transmissibility of bean yellow mosaic virus Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/8k71nk61t

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  • Several bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) strains, presumably not transmissible by aphids, were studied to determine the biological and environmental conditions which would possibly result in aphid transmission of these strains. Investigations were made to study the effect of different aphid rearing conditions on the transmission frequency of BYMV. Also, the probing behavior of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was studied in relation to transmission frequency of BYMV to test plants. Differences other than loss of transmissibility were found to account for the failure of aphids to transmit some BYMV strains. Five strains varied in ability to infect specific pea and bean varieties; all strains were aphid transmissible except BYMV III. BYMV I and II no longer produced systemic infection in Perfected Wales pea or Dwarf Horticultural bean although both strains produced local infection in inoculated leaves of Perfected Wales pea. Only BYMV y21 and III produced systemic infection in Dwarf Horticultural bean. The above changes in virus infectivity were attributed to virus mutation. Both Dwarf Horticultural bean and Perfected Wales pea are commonly used as differential hosts to identify legume viruses. BYMV and pea mosaic virus are distinguished only on the inability of pea mosaic virus to infect bean. Consequently, the validity of virus classification of legume viruses based on differential host reaction is questionable. In addition to the above variation, BYMV I and II required a high post-inoculation temperature to produce infection in Blue Lake bean; other strains were not affected under the same conditions. The host range of BYMV I, II, III, and IV was the same in the plants: Trifolium pretense L., Crotolaria spectabilis Roth., Trifolium subterranean L. variety Yarloop, Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reyn., Glycine max (L.) Merr. variety Lincoln, Melilotus alba Desr., and Pisumm sativum L. variety Lincoln. BYMV III, maintained by mechanical transfer since 1963, was not transmitted to ten plant species in attempts with over 5000 aphids. Myzus persicae (Sulzer) failed to transmit BYMV III from five different species or varieties of source plants. This was interpreted as evidence that virus acquisition by aphids, due to the source plant, was not involved in loss of aphid transmissibility of BYMV III. Five aphid species and ten test plant species were used in an attempt to find a vector-host plant combination which would result in aphid transmission of BYMV III. Macrosiphm albifrons Essig and Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) finally transmitted BYMV III to Crotolaria spectabilis Roth. This was the first transmission of BYMV III after attempts with more than 5000 aphids. The return of aphid transmissibility in BYMV III could be explained only on the basis of virus mutation. Indirect evidence from two experiments suggested that aphid transmissible and non-transmissible forms of BYMV III were present in the stock culture when Macrosiphum albifrons first transmitted BYMV III. Aphids transmitted the isolate first transmitted by Macrosiphum albifrons at a higher frequency than the stock culture of BYMV III. A subsequent experiment indicated that almost any aphid would transmit BYMV III after return of aphid transmissibility. Transmission of BYMV IV by aphids reared on Chinese cabbage was compared to that of aphids reared on a chemically defined diet. The trend in frequency of transmission implied that aphids reared on the artificial diet were inferior in transmission of BYMV IV. The probing behavior of Myzus persicae on Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris was evaluated in relation to the transmission frequency of BYMV. Plant susceptibility of pea and bean was the same. Aphids made 40 percent more probes on bean than on pea in a 15 minute observation period. However, increased transmission to bean was not reflected by the greater number of probes. There was no evidence that transmission of BYMV was affected by observed differences in the probing behavior of Myzus persicae.
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