Effect of kraft mill effluent on structure and function of periphyton communities Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/8s45qd25x

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  • Raw and biologically stabilized Kraft mill effluents were introduced into laboratory artificial streams at a ratio of 15 ml per liter of water over a two year period. Effluent from the stabilization pond of a second mill was introduced at concentrations of from 5 to 40 ml per liter of water for a period of three months. Trays bearing portions of intact periphyton communities growing on rock rubble were removed from the streams and placed in a photosynthesis-respiration chamber where rates of oxygen production and consumption were measured. Comparisons were made between experimental and control streams on the basis of rates of oxygen production and consumption, P/R ratios, organic matter per unit area, concentration of chlorophyll a, mg of oxygen produced per hour per mg of chlorophyll a, relative frequency of occurrence of filamentous algae and densities of populations of diatoms. Communities from streams receiving raw effluent tended to be more heterotrophic than control communities while communities from streams receiving stabilized effluent tended to be more autotrophic than controls. Stabilized effluent produced a greater number of significant differences in community function and structure than did raw effluent. Nitrates and phosphates added in the stabilization process may have contributed to the greater observed effect. The diatoms Navicula sp., Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, and Synedra ulna were significantly more abundant in streams receiving raw effluent than in controls. Rhoicosphenia curvata, Fragilaria brevistriata, C. placentula and Achnanthes minutissima were significantly less abundant. Melosira varians, R. curvata and C. placentula were significantly more abundant and S. ulna was less abundant in streams receiving stabilized effluent from mill A than in controls. R. curvata increased in abundance with increasing concentrations of effluent from mill B. M. varians, F. brevistriata and S. ulna decreased with increasing concentrations of effluent from mill B. Total diatom population was significantly reduced by raw and stabilized effluent. Oedogonium sp. was more abundant in streams receiving stabilized effluent. Organic matter and chlorophyll a per unit area decreased with increasing concentrations of effluent from mill B.
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