Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation


The Effects of Video Modeling on Test of Gross Motor Development-3 Performance among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Public Deposited

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  • Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported to have motor skill delays and deficits. However, there have been challenges to these findings on whether these deficits are due to lack of movement skills or inaccurate assessment methods. Due to relative strengths in processing visual stimuli as opposed to verbal stimuli within this population, instructional and assessment strategies that incorporate visual presentations are recommended. One visual support approach that has found to be successful among children with ASD is video modeling. Video modeling has been shown in the research to improve and maintain behaviors such as social and communicative skills, play skills, and self-help skills, but use is limited in physical activity and motor assessment settings. It is hypothesized that video modeling strategies may also improve motor performance by enhancing accuracy of motor skill assessments. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of video modeling on the assessment of motor skills among children with ASD. The Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3) was administered to measure motor skills of children in this study. Thirteen children with ASD (ages 11-16) and fifteen children without ASD (ages 3-11) participated in this study. Participants performed the TGMD-3 under two separate protocols (traditional condition and video modeling condition) in a counterbalanced order. The video modeling condition involved video demonstrations of the selected TGMD-3 skills made by the primary investigator and shown on an Apple iPad Air. The two testing conditions were completed on two distinct days within approximately 7 days of each other. Two repeated-measures one-way ANOVAs were used to examine the differences in gross motor scores between the testing conditions. Although gross motor scores of the video modeling condition among children with ASD increased by approximately 2 points, differences were not found to be statistically significant. Scores of children without ASD decreased by approximately 2 points following the video modeling condition, though differences were also not statistically significant. Two separate one-way repeated measures ANOVAs investigating the effectiveness of video modeling on total assessment duration revealed significant increases in assessment time using the video modeling condition, suggesting that the video modeling condition takes longer than the traditional condition. Lastly, two 2x3 (condition by preference) repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that both children with and without ASD perform better using the preferred condition (traditional versus video modeling) of the TGMD-3 though these differences were not significant. Future research is needed in order to further explore the effectiveness of video modeling strategies among children with ASD. Additionally, it is recommended that effective video modeling designs and procedures within motor assessment environments are provided in the literature.
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