Factors associated with school teachers' attitudes toward HIV prevention education in Lusaka, Zambia Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/8w32r989q

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  • In Zambia, there are approximately 920,000 people living with HIV/AIDS. Children are often referred to as a "window of hope" due to a low HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (UNAIDS/WHO, 2006). With growing numbers of infections and an increased strain on the social and economic structure due to HIV/AIDS there is a strong need for solutions. The school system is a sustainable community structure for HIV prevention that can be monitored for quality. However, to date, little research has been undertaken in basic schools themselves to examine the experiences of schooling of HIV/AIDS-affected children, orphaned, vulnerable children, and teachers' attitudes as HIV educators. This study addresses individual and contextual factors that influence teachers’ attitudes in their roles as HIV prevention educators in Lusaka, Zambia. The study uses Socio-Cultural Constructionism, Theory of Reasoned Action, and Social Cognitive Theory as the theoretical framework and the basis for the initial inquiry examining how the attitudes, perceptions of social norms, school climate, and HIV knowledge impact a teacher’s attitude towards teaching HIV prevention in a comparison between school types (community, government and private) in Lusaka, Zambia. The purpose of this study was to: 1) identify factors associated with school teachers' level of adoption and perceived need of HIV prevention education within the classroom setting in Lusaka, Zambia; 2) evaluate social-cultural variables that are suggested to influence a teacher's attitudes and dissemination of HIV education in Lusaka, Zambia. Attitudes were also examined in relation to student-related characteristics (orphan and HIV status), and the influence on a teacher's perceived need and attitude toward HIV education within and between school types in Lusaka, Zambia; 3) explore factors associated with a teacher's self-efficacy towards HIV prevention education within the school setting in Lusaka, Zambia; and 4) compare the current factors of HIV prevention education and their association with teachers' attitude among the school types in the urban school setting. The work used a combination of quantitative and narrative approaches: original cross-sectional data was collected through self-reported surveys and interviews from schoolteachers in Lusaka province Zambia in 2008. Using a list provided by the Ministry of Education, schools were stratified (grouped) according to type (private/church, community, and government) and teachers were clustered within schools. Schools were then randomly selected in proportion to their number and type. Qualitative data was also collected through in-depth interviews with teachers. Liner regression and logistic regression models were to examine the relationship between variables and a teacher's HIV prevention adoption, attitudes, and self-efficacy in their respective school settings.
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