Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

Chronic exposure of rodents to indole-3-carbinol and 3,3'-diindolylmethane : implications for drug metabolism, chemoprevention and human health Public Deposited

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https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/9019s6189

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  • Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a naturally occurring plant alkaloid, found in significant concentrations in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and Brussels sprouts. I3C is an unstable compound that undergoes rapid oligomerization in an acidic environment to form higher order condensation products (I3C-ACPs), such as 3-3'-diindolylmethane (DIM). Both I3C and DIM are marketed as dietary supplements and are under investigation as potential chemopreventive agents, despite limited data on the effects of chronic exposure. Previous studies have demonstrated that the chemopreventive potential of I3C and DIM in animal studies is dependent on species, strain, tissue and timing of treatment relative to carcinogen exposure, and long-term post-initiation exposure can even promote tumors. The majority of biological effects from I3C are the result of the abilities DIM and other I3C-ACPs to bind to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and the subsequent induction of phase I and phase II enzymes. Phase I and phase II enzyme induction in many cases leads to protection from carcinogens by increasing the rate of metabolism and excretion but in some cases enhances carcinogenicity by increasing the rate of bioactivation. It has been demonstrated that modulation of enzyme levels can also result in altered metabolism of compounds that could affect efficacy and toxicity of pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics. The current work utilizes chronic dietary I3C and DIM exposures in rodent models to further elucidate the effect these compounds might have on health, drug metabolism and carcinogenesis. The reduced weight of Fischer 344 rats treated with 2500 ppm I3C for 1 year may be indicative of adverse effects but toxicity was not confirmed by blood chemistry or histopathological examination. Furthermore, no toxicity was observed after a comparable treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats. As observed after acute and sub-chronic exposures to I3C and DIM, we documented significant induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and a related modification to drug metabolism in liver slice incubations. Evidence is also provided that may suggest that tumor modulation in mice may occur through an estrogenic mechanism. Further studies should be completed to determine the potential for similar responses in humans.
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