Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

Adaptation of vertical ground reaction force due to changes in breast support in running Public Deposited

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https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/9880vs96k

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  • Introduction: Sports bras offer different levels of breast support and allow for a wide range of vertical breast motion. Excessive breast motion during exercise causes discomfort and may discourage participation in regular exercise. Inadequate breast support may lead to adaptations in a woman's running mechanics. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relationship of breast support to breast motion, ground reaction force, vertical stiffness, and stride frequency. Methods: Seventeen subjects of breast sizes 34C-38D ran on an instrumented treadmill while wearing low-, medium-, and high-support sports bras. Force and motion data were collected from which mechanical characteristics for each support condition were calculated. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for group analysis, but individual subject analysis using single factor randomized ANOVA formed the core of the study, which focused on the unique, individual subject responses to the three levels of breast support. Results: In the group analysis, breast motion decreased while active peak vertical force increased with support; other kinetic and kinematic variables were unchanged for the group. Each subject had the least amount of vertical breast motion in the high support condition. Twelve of the 17 subjects had an increase in active peak VGRF with an increase in support while fewer (43%) increased impact peak VGRF (not including four subjects with a mid-foot strike pattern for whom no impact peak was evident). Vertical stiffness decreased for most subjects as breast support increased with 59% having the greatest stiffness values at the lowest level of support. Finally, while there were significant changes in stride frequency for many subjects, the magnitude of the changes were relatively small compared to force and stiffness changes. Conclusions: Women in this study had decreased breast motion as breast support increased. In addition, many subjects had mechanical adaptations to increased support, which included increased vertical ground reaction force but decreased vertical stiffness.
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