The blueberry : composition, anthocyanins, and polyphenolics Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/9880vt36b

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  • Frozen blueberries were pilot-plant-processed into juice and concentrate by 2 treatments (heat and SO2), and a control. Qualitative, and quantitative anthocyanin and polyphenolic content were monitored after each processing step. Major losses occurred after the initial processing steps. Juice processing by-product contained a substantial amount of anthocyanins and polyphenolics (>42% and >15%, respectively of the starting material), which indicated they remained a good source for further extraction. Commercial juice processing enzymes (n=9) and other extraction methods were evaluated for extraction of anthocyanins and dietary antioxidants from blueberry skins and wholeberries on a bench-top scale. Blueberries were manually separated into peels, flesh, and seeds. The fractions were evaluated for (qualitative and quantitative) anthocyanin (ACY) and polyphenolic (TP) content, and antioxidant capacity. Blueberry skins had the greatest antioxidant capacity .with the highest ACY and TP content, followed by flesh, and then seeds. The polyphenolic profiles were different in each of the three fractions. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS), and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS) were used in identifying the individual anthocyanins. LC-DAD-MS was an invaluable tool in identification of the individual anthocyanins. Four Pacific Northwest native huckleberries (n>38 populations) were collected to compare their ACY and TP content to 'Rubel', which is an important criterion for breeding programs or commercialization. The ACY content of all huckleberry samples analyzed ranged from 101 to 563mg/lOOg (cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents), while the TP varied from 367 to 1286mg/100g (gallic acid equivalents). The HPLC profile of the individual anthocyanins and phenolics of some of the huckleberries differed in the amounts of delphinidin, cyanidin, and malvidin glycosides. A collaborative study following the guidelines of AOAC International was conducted to validate the pH differential method for determining total monomeric anthocyanin pigment, as an AOAC approved method. Eleven collaborators evaluated seven Youden pairs of test samples. The results (Horrat values 1.33) indicated that the method met the objective of determining ACY content of liquid samples, and was recommended to be adopted Official First Action.
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