Internal moisture relations of standing Douglas-fir trees injected with organic arsenicals Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/9g54xm75s

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  • Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) ranging from 9.6 to 14.3 inches diameter breast height were treated with the organic arsenicals, monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) and cacodylic acid. Treatments were applied at monthly intervals from February, 1967 to October, 1968, to ten to 25 trees each month. Treated trees were sampled in September, 1967 and September, 1968. The time lapse from treatment to harvest ranged from five to 19 months, during which time the trees were left standing in the forest to air-dry. Untreated control trees were cut in February, 1967 and at both of the September cutting dates. Treatments consisted of boring holes, one for each three inches of diameter at breast height and pouring ten to 20 milliliters of the herbicide in each hole. Wafer samples were cut from the ends of each log at the time the trees were cut. The respective diameters and moisture contents of the bark, sapwood and heartwood were recorded. Tree and log measurements were taken in the field. Individual logs were weighed after skidding to the landing for each harvest made in September. A model tree was constructed mathematically, based on measurements from the samples and field data, for a standard comparison of the moisture profiles of each treatment. The moisture profiles were determined by multiple linear stepwise regression analysis of the moisture contents of the sample components (bark, sapwood and heartwood) and data characterizing each sample. Weights of these components and the total tree for each treatment were determined by integration of the moisture profiles over the model tree. Percentage weight reductions range from negative values to values greater than 2O percent. Weight losses were a result of drying in the bark and sapwood and loss of bark. MSMA treated trees were consistently drier than trees treated with cacodylic acid. The moisture content of the heartwood was unaffected by the treatments. Bark loss was more apparent and breakage tended to occur more frequently with long drying periods. The data suggest that treating in mid-summer after the major insect flights created trees unattractive to certain insects during the second year. The summer of 1967 was abnormally hot and dry and the summer of 1968 was abnormally wet. Thus, weather had an important bearing on results, particularly in reducing the drying exposure of trees treated in September and October, 1967. The economic implications and potentials of the results are discussed for various aspects of the forest industry and forest practices. Visual observations made of the treated trees being cut into lumber and veneer indicated that utilization processes were not adversely affected. Drying times longer than those tested appear to be possible without degrade. The drier wood enables more uniform kiln drying and reduces the time required for air drying by nearly 25 percent. This feature should be applicable to all types of drying of various products. This is especially important for products requiring very long drying periods such as poles and pilings. Benefits of field drying carry through logging, shipping, manufacturing, and handling. Drying was adequate to permit faster drying of sapwood veneer. At the moisture contents obtained there was no effect on the veneer process nor on pulping quality. The loss of weight was adequate for an appreciable increase of the volume per truck load for hauling, and for an increase in the efficiency of present logging equipment while making less expensive equipment more practical. This type of treatment permits more intensive management of timber stands, enabling the land manager to accomplish many objectives at one time and has the potential of reducing the diameter of the marginal tree. Storage of the wood fiber on the stump by continuous thinnings is a logical outgrowth of the above findings. This practice would keep the stand at optimum stocking for maximum growth while maintaining the killed trees in salvagable condition. The combined silvicultural benefits of insect and disease control, along with slash reduction and reduction of operating costs in logging and manufacturing, provide a tool of broad utility to forest managers.
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