Effect of three levels of dietary egg on the nutrient intake of free-living, middle-aged men Public Deposited

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  • Two studies which were similar in protocol were conducted. Following a preliminary baseline period of 7 days, in which the subjects consumed their self-chosen diets, they received 3 eggs daily for 4 weeks. Depending upon the changes in plasma cholesterol in response to 3 eggs daily, the subjects in studies A and B were divided into 2 groups. During the subsequent 4 week treatment period, the hyporesponders received 6 eggs daily in study A, and 3 eggs and additional butter daily in study B. The hyperresponders consumed 3 eggs daily in study A; and 3 eggs with additional high PUFA margarine in study B. Dietary records were taken during the last 7 days of each period. A total of 128 seven-day dietary records kept by these subjects indicated that the majority of them met the RDA's for the nutrients studied, except vitamin B6 and folacin. Vitamin B6 intakes were below 67% of the RDA in 13% of the diets, and were below 67% of the RDA for folacin in 21% of the diets. There was a problem in meeting 67% of the RDA for zinc in subjects who consumed less than 70 g. of protein daily. When the subjects added 3 whole eggs daily to their self-chosen diets, there were significant increases in protein (p<0.05), total fat (p<0.01), phosphorous (p<0.01), sodium (p<0.001), iron (p<0.05), and dietary cholesterol (p<0.0001). A significant decrease in non-egg dietary cholesterol (p<0.01) was also observed. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake between hypos and hypers in either the baseline or classification periods. No further changes in nutrient intakes were seen in the 9 subjects who continued consuming 3 added eggs daily during treatment period. The 13 hyporesponders who added 6 eggs daily to their self-chosen diets had significant increases, compared to baseline, in protein (p<0.05), total fat (p<0.05), and dietary cholesterol (p<0.0001) and significant decreases in carbohydrate (p<0.01), thiamin (p<0.05), and vitamin B6 (p<0.05). Other than obvious increases in total fat, no other changes in nutrient intake were observed upon the addition of butter or margarine. The use of nutritional supplements was observed in 71% of the subjects: 58% regularly and 13% occasionally. All subjects who took supplements included vitamin C. In general, nutrient supplements did not improve poor nutrient intakes. These results show overall adequacy of the diets for most of the men, which is consistent with other studies. The effects of additional egg in the diet were increases in protein, fat and cholesterol intakes and a decrease in carbohydrate consumption.
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