|Abstract or Summary
- Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to determine the influence
of the use of written advance organization, post organization or both
advance/post organization on learners as compared to the use of
non organization for the learning and retention of verbal, academic
material. An additional interest was to determine the effect of the
type of student using the various organizers at two different times
of recall; immediate and retention three weeks following the initial
Eighty (80) subjects from each of three areas of study at
Oregon State University participated in a learning experiment which
utilized four levels of a written conceptual organizer. The four
levels of organizer (i.e., advance, post, advance/post, and non
organizer) established the four treatment groups used for each type
Students (116 female, 124 male) from teacher education,
industrial education, and science majors in chemistry were presented
appropriate verbal organizers prior to and/or following the learning
of meaningful verbal material to determine whether learning and
retention were enhanced.
The post and non organizer groups received a non organizing,
historical passage to study for eight minutes prior to reading a
longer learning passage on the metallurgical properties of carbon
steel. The advance and advance/post organizer groups received a
concept building, background passage prior to reading the same
Following a twenty minute period allowed for reading the
learning passage, the advance and non organizer groups received
the historical, non organizing passage to study for an eight minute
period. The post and advance/post organizer groups received the
concept building, background passage for the same period of time.
All subjects took the same criterion test consisting of thirtytwo
(32) multiple choice questions immediately following the last
stage of the experiment. No time limit was imposed and the subjects
completed the test at their own speed. All subjects repeated the same test three weeks following the learning exercise for a measure
of retention. The learner's score on the criterion test was determined
by the number of correct responses. The materials used in
the study were developed by and used with the permission of Dr.
David P. Ausubel.
The collected data were analyzed using the F statistic to
determine if differences existed among the mean scores. Both the
three-way analysis of variance and a multiple comparisons analysis
were conducted. The Least Significant Difference test was utilized
when comparisons showing significant differences contained more
than two means.
The following conclusions were supported as a result of the
study and are based upon the findings:
1. A written advance organizer effectively facilitated the
learning and retention of meaningful verbal material.
2. Neither post nor advance/post organization significantly
facilitated the learning and retention of meaningful verbal
material for the sample as a whole.
3. Both advance and advance /post organization facilitated
learning and retention significantly more than did non
organization for industrial education subjects only.
4. The performance of different types of students using the
same types of organizers as an aid to facilitate learning
5. The performance level of the different types of students
did not persist for all four types of organizer.