The effect of ethylene manipulation on flower bud development of prunus persica and prunus domestica and of pyrus communis ovule senescence Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/9p290d80j

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  • In the Northwest, two tree fruit production problems may be related to the role of ethylene on plant growth and development: flowers and developing fruits are subject to low temperature injury during early spring, and to the low fruit set of 'Comice'. Ethylene may be involved in influencing dormancy and flower and ovule senescence. Thus, manipulation of the ethylene levels during various stages of development may alleviate these problems. The role of ethylene on floral bud break was studied by the applications of ethylene inhibitors and ethephon, an ethylene generator, during various stages of floral bud development. Lower concentrations of a fall ethephon spray at the onset of dormancy delayed subsequent anthesis by 8 and 13 days on peach and prune fruit trees without excessive damage. This ethephon spray was associated with high levels of internal bud ethylene and ABA. The slower in the rate of flower differentiation and development was related to the high levels of internal ethylene during dormancy and this could account for the bloom delay the following spring. The study indicated two preferred methods to delay floral bud development with a fall application of ethephon without reduced yield performance on Prunus: 1) fall ethephon applied between 10-100% natural leaf drop stage; or 2) fall ethephon on partially defoliated trees 6 days after defoliants were applied. The ethylene level of 'Comice' pear flowers was manipulated by an ethylene inhibitor (aminoethoxyvinylglycine, AVG) to enhance fruit set and yield. A polyamine, putrescine, was selected by a lab test among different ethylene inhibitors for improving fruit set of 'Comice' in the field. The applied polyamine at 10⁻³M in full bloom stage increased yield by 220% and 45%, respectively, during 1985 and 1986. Putrescine had no effect on fruit maturity or return bloom during the four years of application. Using an aniline blue technique for testing ovule viability, flowers treated with putrescine had a longer effective pollination period (EPP) and ovule longevity, by 2 days in 1985 and by 5 days in 1986. However, the extended ovule longevity and the increased fruit set from the putrescine application were not related to lowered ethylene levels in the flower during anthesis. In fact, the level of internal ethylene was higher on putrescine treated flowers than those untreated in the field. Also, the evolved ethylene of the putrescine treated flowers in vitro was higher than untreated 'Comice' flowers. Flowers treated with putrescine had greater dry weight concentration of N and B during post bloom stage.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2011-11-17T21:56:40Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 CRISOSTOCARLOSH1988.pdf: 1162917 bytes, checksum: 8566ebc00a2461806b5326700c196ca5 (MD5)
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