- The in-service Teacher Education Program in India has evinced a rapid growth since India gained independence in 1947. An all-India program of in-service education was established by the Ministry of Education in 1955. At present, the in-service education is carried out by 69 Extension Centers and 24 Extension Units attached to training colleges in all the states of India. These Extension Centers and Units provide continuous year-round in-service programs for the benefit of teachers, with the main purpose of improving teacher competency and providing for professional growth.
A brief history of teacher education and in-service education in India, beginning from the 19th century is given, to indicate the need for and the importance of an all-India program of in-service education. The implementation of the Extension Services Project,its organization, functions, responsibilities, and major activities are described. The effect of the Extension Services Project on secondary schools was evaluated by means of data obtained from two sides of questionnaires, distributed to 560 teachers and 112 administrators from 112 schools in Madras State. Usable returns were received from 62 percent of the teachers and administrators. Eighty-one percent of the schools responded to the questionnaires.
The major findings of the study are as follows:
1. Administrators indicate that the most valuable achievement is teacher growth in terms of subject matter competency, new methods and techniques and increased professional interest,
2. Administrators and teachers utilize training courses, seminars, and workshops more than any other program offered by the Extension Centers,
3. A majority of the teachers and administrators have participated in Science Fairs which they feel help in discovering science talents among pupils,
4. Audio-visual aids and certain of the library books are in high demand, but the arrangements for securing them from the Centers are not adequate,
5. Administrators and teachers reported preference for intensive type of activities conducted in individual schools rather than the extensive type organized at the Center,
6. The most common suggestions given by the teachers and the administrators for improving the in-service activities are that provision should be made to organize more demonstration lessons, to provide more books in regional languages and to make satisfactory arrangements for paying travel expenses and daily allowances.
The major recommendations of the study are as follows:
1. Additional training courses and seminars should be organized, especially in the teaching of Science and English,
2. There is need to popularize the publications of the Extension Center and to insure better and more frequent use of the Extension library,
3. A committee of experienced teachers should be established at each Extension Center to aid the Coordinator in bringing out more useful publications,
4. Coordinators and staff of the training colleges should visit associated schools more often to help teachers in solving specific problems,
5. Follow-up activities should be planned for teachers who participate in in-service activities,
6. Efforts should be made to improve the arrangement for the payment of travel expenses and daily allowances,
7. Funds should be provided for the establishment of new Extension Centers or Units in areas where the present Centers serve more than 100 schools.