Cyperus esculentus control with glyphosate : time of application and addition of ammonium sulfate Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/9z903309s

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  • Cyperus esculentus L. var. esculentus is a serious weed problem in northwest Spain. Long-term control from glyphosate and other herbicides has been inconsistent. Field, greenhouse, and laboratory studies were conducted on factors influencing the activity of glyphosate on C. esculentus. In field studies, glyphosate controlled foliage growth at most growth stages. Number and weight of new tubers were reduced by glyphosate treatment. Reinfestation the following year was reduced most by treatments made when new tubers were beginning to form, thus creating a strong "sink," toward which sugars and glyphosate translocated. Later applications, when tubers were mostly mature, were less effective. A method was developed that involved marking and comparing growth of new and old leaves in order to measure short-term effects from glyphosate. This method was non-destructive, easier, and gave more consistent results than measuring fresh weights. Several studies on the effect of adding ammonium sulfate to glyphosate solutions have been reported previously. Results have been varied. In my studies, the addition of ammonium sulfate to glyphosate solution sometimes caused a greater reduction in leaf growth on ashort-term basis. This was especially true when leaves were washed 3 h following treatment or when glyphosate was mixed with simazine or calcium chloride. The ammonium sulfate overcame a slight antagonistic effect from the calcium chloride. The effect of ammonium sulfate on glyphosate translocation was studied by treating the distal 10 cm of two leaves and removing the treated portions 1day later. Growth of the remaining leaves was measured. The addition of ammonium sulfate reduced the effect of glyphosate on untreated leaves, indicating that the ammonium sulfate had inhibited glyphosate translocation. Studies with "C-glyphosate indicated that ammonium sulfate increased the rate of glyphosate absorption, but did not affect total absorption. Glyphosate translocation from treated portions of the plant was not significantly affected. These results tend to support the concept of adding ammonium sulfate to aglyphosate solution when treating annual weeds, especially when using hard water, but there appears to be no advantage from adding ammonium sulfate when treating C. esculentus.
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