Aroma comparison of 'Marion' (Rubus sp. L.) and 'Thornless Evergreen' (R. laciniatus L.) blackberries Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/b5644t952

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  • 'Marion' and 'Thornless Evergreen' blackberry volatiles were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FED) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Based on total percentage of FID area 'Thornless Evergreen' contains significantly more alcohols, hydrocarbons, and phenols than the 'Marion'; 'Marion' contains more acids and esters. Both cultivars contained comparable amounts of aldehydes and ketones; alcohols were most abundant. The six most abundant volatiles in 'Marion' were ethanol, acetic acid, hexanoic acid, ethyl acetate, linalool, and 2-heptanol; they totaled 52% of total peak area. In 'Thornless Evergreen' the six most abundant volatiles were 2-heptanol, ethanol, 2,3-butanediol, hexanol, α-pinene, and ethyl acetate; they totaled 43% of total peak area. 'Marion' and 'Thornless Evergreen' blackberry aromas were compared using a pair of extraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) methods. One method is based on purge-and-trap (P&T, dynamic headspace) extraction and aroma intensity rating by detection frequency (DetF) and a numeric scale, and the other based on solvent assisted flavor extraction (SAFE) and aroma threshold dilution analysis (AEDA). The parallel use of P&T-DetF GC-0 and SAFE-AEDA provided more representative blackberry volatile compositional data than either alone. Eighty-four compounds were identified; seventy-seven were in 'Marion', and sixty-eight in 'Thornless Evergreen'. Thirty-seven have not been previously reported in blackberry. Fourteen volatiles out of eighty-four were described with aroma descriptors specific to bramble fruit (berry, blackberry, bramble, raspberry); no single compound was unanimously described as "characteristically blackberry". Fresh 'Marion' blackberry aroma has been described as floral, fruity, sweet, caramel-fruity, and woody, while fresh 'Thornless Evergreen' aroma is spicy, green, herbaceous, fruity, and sweet. Except for esters, the cultivars contain comparable numbers of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, furanones, hydrocarbons, ketones, phenolics, sulfur, and Theaspirane compounds. Research data implies some portion of the more floral, fruity, and sweet aroma of the 'Marion' blackberry may be the result of additional esters not shared with the 'Thornless Evergreen' blackberry, yet both cultivars apparently contain five furanones, which are powerful sources of sweet, fruity, and spicy aromas. Aroma reconstitution studies will be the key to resolving the significant aroma profile differences between 'Marion' and 'Thornless Evergreen' blackberries, as characteristic blackberry aroma is apparently a complex formulation of volatiles.
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