Changes in measured self-actualization as influenced by a group counseling procedure Public Deposited

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  • The problem of the study was to determine whether university students enrolled in a pre-service teacher training course and exposed to a group counseling procedure having as its major emphasis education in the affective domain could demonstrate a significant change in self-actualization when compared with similarly enrolled students who had not been exposed to the procedure. The investigation was designed to test the following hypotheses: 1. There will be a significant change in self-actualization in the group exposed to a group counseling procedure. The groups not exposed to a group counseling procedure will not evidence a change in self-actualization. 2. There will be a significant difference in growth toward self-actualization between the group exposed to a group counseling procedure and the groups not exposed to the procedure. 3. The posttest mean of the group exposed to a group counseling procedure will be similar to the mean of a clinically judged self-actualized sample. The groups not exposed to a group counseling procedure will not evidence posttest means similar to the mean of a clinically judged self-actualized sample. The sample of the study was selected from undergraduate and graduates in Oregon State University registered during the 1970 Winter Term for the nine class sections of Educational Psychology. The sample consisted of 103 students assigned to two class sections of the investigator and to one class section of another instructor. Student placement in the classes was determined by the computer assisted registration procedure. The investigator was the facilitator in the experimental group (Group I) of 30 students (12 male and 18 female) and one control group (Group 11) of 43 students (17 male and 26 female). Another instructor was the facilitator in the other control group (Group III) of 30 students (10 male and 20 female). All sections of Educational Psychology were coordinated under a special grant titled, "Student Centered Educational Psychology: An Experiential Approach." The control groups received exposure to self-directed learning in and out of the class sectional meetings. The experimental group differed only in the class sectional meetings where they were exposed to experiential learning exercises. The class sectional meetings were two hours weekly for all three groups over a period of nine weeks. The experiential learning exercises were detailed for ease of replication. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) was the instrument utilized for the measurement of growth toward self-actualization or positive mental health. The instrument was administered under pre and posttest conditions to all three groups. The pre-posttest gains on the Inner Directed (I) Scale were utilized for the testing of the three major hypotheses by means of one-tailed and two-tailed t tests. The .05 level of confidence was selected as the acceptable level of statistical significance. Findings for the three hypotheses revealed there was an increase in self-actualization for the experimental and two control groups which was significant at the .001 level for all three groups; there was no significant difference in growth toward self-actualization between the experimental and two control groups; and the pre-test means were similar to a normal sample for all three groups while the experimental and one control group (Group II) showed posttest means similar to a clinically judged self-actualized sample. In the experimental group growth producing effects were chosen by a facilitator with the intent of providing experiences in the affective domain which would result in growth toward self-actualization for college students in a pre-service teacher training course. In the two control groups college students in a pre-service teacher training course were given the opportunity to direct their own learning and chose experiences which resulted in their growth toward self-actualization. The effectiveness in terms of growth toward self-actualization of the two methods seems to have been demonstrated. Although differential effects relative to the hypotheses were not generally indicated, some differences appeared which were related to sex, tutoring, and to growth toward a level of clinically judged self-actualized status in the case of the experimental group.
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