Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation


Activated carbon incorporated into herbicide protection pods as a seed amendment technology for revegetation Public Deposited

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  • Reestablishing native perennial vegetation in annual grass-invaded rangelands is critical to restoring ecosystems, especially following wildfires. Controlling invasive annual grasses is essential to increasing revegetation success; however, pre-emergent herbicides used to control annual grasses prohibit immediate seeding due to non-target herbicide damage. Thus, seeding is often delayed one year following herbicide application. This delay frequently allows for re-establishment of annual grasses, decreasing the success of revegetation efforts. Incorporating seeds into herbicide protection pods (HPPs) containing activated carbon (AC) permits concurrent high herbicide application and seeding because AC deactivates herbicides. However, only one pre-emergent herbicide and a limited number of species have been tested with HPPs thus far. In order to be an effective tool for land managers, HPPs must be effective with multiple pre-emergent herbicide and multiple restoration/revegetation species. We conducted two studies: 1) a lab study with two native species; (Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt ssp. wyomingensis) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) Á. Löve)), to assess the effectiveness of HPPs with a new pre-emergent herbicide, indaziflam, and 2) a field study with five bunchgrass species and two shrub species with high imazapic application rates to assess the effectiveness of HPPs with multiple species and functional groups in the field. HPPs protected seeded species at low, mid, and high rates of indaziflam. The abundance and size of plants was greater in HPPs compared to bare seed treatments. The results of the first study suggest that HPPs can be used to seed native grasses and shrubs simultaneously with indaziflam application. In the second study, HPPs significantly improved establishment of sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata Nutt. Spp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young), bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Love), and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.) over the two-year study. Three native perennial grass species were protected from herbicide damage by HPPs but had low establishment in both treatments. While establishment of native perennial bunchgrasses was low, this study demonstrates that HPPs can be used to protect seeded bunchgrasses and sagebrush from imazapic, prolonging establishment time in the absence of competition with annual grasses.
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  • Pending Publication
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  • 2019-12-09 to 2021-01-10



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