- Nature of the Phenomenon
The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine if the
predisposition of counselor candidates on selected factors found to be
associated with effective counseling, upon entering a counselor education
program, was predictive of effective counselors at the end of that
Two central hypotheses were conceived to explore the phenomenon of
this investigation. The first hypothesis examined post-training
effectiveness differences between three groups of master's students in
counseling and guidance who functioned (discriminated) at three distinct
levels of effectiveness prior to training. The second hypothesis
explored pre- to posttest differences within each of the three student
groups in terms of effectiveness discriminating ability. Additional
secondary hypotheses relating to such factors as undergraduate grade-point
average, sex, age, years of prior experience, were generated.
Lastly, "personal criteria" supervisor ratings of effectiveness and
"prescribed criteria" supervisor ratings of effectiveness were contrasted
and subsequently each of these sets of ratings were compared
with written inventory indexes of effectiveness.
Methods and Procedures
The Counseling Situations and Responses Inventory was administered
to 30 master's candidates in the Counseling and Guidance Department
at Oregon State University during the beginning of fall quarter,
1976. This inventory was adapted from Dr. George M. Gazda's scales
measuring the facilitative dimensions in human relations and was
developed with the assistance and permission of Dr. Gazda. The sample
of 30 master's candidates was composed of 21 females and 9 males and
their average age was thirty-two. The instrument consisted of scales
to measure the facilitative dimensions of empathy, respect, concreteness,
genuineness, self-disclosure, -confrontation, immediacy of
relationship, and an encompassing global scale.
During spring term, 1977 the Counseling Situations and Responses
Inventory was again administered to the 30 students and two types of
counselor effectiveness rating froms were completed by their supervisors:
one was based on "personal" criteria while the other was based
on "prescribed" criteria (the facilitative dimensions). One-way analyses
of variance were utilized to test for post-training differences in
effectiveness between "low," "average," and "high" pre-training
effectiveness groups as well as for post-training group differences
in undergraduate grade-point averages, sex, age, years of counseling
experience, and the eight (8) selected criteria of effectiveness measured
by the inventory. The major outcome of the study, a counselor
selection model for future applicants, was developed through the use
of stepwise multiple regression analysis, analysis of variance, t
tests of significance, a correlation matrix, and ultimately discriminant
analysis. The .05 level of significance was chosen for testing
all hypotheses although additional information (.01 level) was
furnished where applicable.
Results of the investigation indicated that the only significant
difference which existed at the completion of the training program
between the three groups of students was between the pre-training "low"
effectiveness group and the pre-training "high" effectiveness group.
No significant differences existed between the "low" and "average"
groups nor between the "average" and "high" groups at the completion
of the study. There were no significant differences between posttraining
level of effectiveness and sex, undergraduate grade-point
averages, and age. The variables of "concreteness," "genuineness,"
and "empathy" were shown to be significant predictors of counselor
effectiveness with the variable "concreteness" explaining over 37 percent
of the variance alone. A counselor selection model was developed
through this investigation and an example provided of its usage.