Factors affecting the antimicrobial activity of vitamin K₅ Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/bk128g33q

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  • Vitamin K₅, 4-amino-2-methyl-1-naphthol hydrochloride, a water soluble analog of vitamin K has been shown to possess an antimicrobial activity toward many bacteria, molds, and yeast. Much of the work reported in the literature is on its use as a food preservative, and it was the purpose of this study to investigate some of the factors which might affect the antimicrobial activity of vitamin K₅ in order to add insight into its more effective use as a food preservative. Pure cultures of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Staphlococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens were utilized. The effect of the method of application of vitamin K₅ on Escherichia coli; the effect of purity of vitamin K₅ against Escherichia coli; the bactericidal concentrations required for Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Staphlococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens; the effect of an absence of oxygen; the effect of contact time with Escherichia coli; the effect of initial count/ml of Escherichia coli; and the synergistic action in combination with propylene glycol were studied. The results demonstrated that air oxidation of vitamin K₅ was necessary to obtain maximum inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli. The use of white, crystalline vitamin K₅ synthesized in the laboratory, as compared to partially oxidized commercial preparations, gave better results against Escherichia coli. It was shown that some species variation, with the five microorganisms tested, did exist with respect to the antimicrobial activity of vitamin K₅. The bactericidal concentrations ranged from 60 ppm for Staphlococcus aureus to 220 ppm for Escherichia coli, using an initial count of 160,000 to 200,000 cells/ml and a contact time of 12 hours in Bacto-nutrient broth. The gram-positive bacteria tested were more susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of vitamin K₅ than the gram-negative bacteria tested. In the studies conducted under nitrogen atmosphere the percent inhibition showed an inverse relation to the bactericidal concentrations required for complete inhibition in studies conducted under air atmosphere. This finding suggested that there might be different factors responsible for inhibition depending on the species of bacteria being tested and also might help explain the difference in concentrations necessary for inhibition. Cells of Escherichia coli were not inhibited immediately on coming into contact with vitamin K₅. Fifty percent inhibition occurred after 25 minutes. A rapid inhibition rate was maintained until approximately 90 percent inhibition occurred, afterwhich, a rapid decrease in the rate of inhibition was noted. An increase in the initial number of cells of Escherichia coli utilized required an increase in the concentration of vitamin K₅ for complete inhibition, although the concentration of vitamin K₅ was not the limiting factor. A synergistic effect does exist between vitamin K₅ and propylene glycol, and the bactericidal concentrations necessary for the different bacteria can be reduced depending on the species of bacteria and the concentration of propylene glycol utilized.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-03-07T21:04:43Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 MERRIFIELDLARRY1964.pdf: 4927271 bytes, checksum: 031325e3cf5b66aa28ab98456de7df7a (MD5)
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-03-07T21:05:56Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 MERRIFIELDLARRY1964.pdf: 4927271 bytes, checksum: 031325e3cf5b66aa28ab98456de7df7a (MD5)
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