Transcriptional repression mediated by a novel family of C₂H₂ zinc finger proteins Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/bk128g358

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  • Two novel and highly related C₂H₂ zinc finger proteins (CTIP1/BCL11A/EVI9 and CTIP2/BCL11B/Rit1) have been implicated in COUP-TF signaling, etiology of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies, and hematopoietic cell development. However, the precise cellular function(s) and the contribution of these proteins to neoplastic processes and hematopoietic cell development remain unknown. The goal of the studies described herein was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the transcriptional repression mediated by these proteins to understand their biological properties, and ultimately, their cellular function(s). CTIP proteins repressed transcription of a reporter gene in a TSA-insensitive manner, suggesting that this repression mechanism(s) may not involve TSA-sensitive histone deacetylation catalyzed by member(s) of class I and II HDACs. One possible mechanism is that CTIP proteins may exert ISA-insensitive histone deacetylation catalyzed by TSA-insensitive HDAC(s), such as SIRT1, to repress transcription. In deed, SIRT1 was found to interact with CTIP proteins both in vitro and in mammalian cells, and was recruited to the promoter template in a CTIP-dependent manner. The proline-rich regions of CTIP proteins and the sirtuin homology domain of SIRT1 were found to be essential for mediating CTIPs•SIRT1 interactions. Moreover, column chromatography revealed that SIRT1 and CTIP2 were components of a large complex in Jurkat cell nuclear extracts. Based on the findings that SIRT1 associates with CTIP proteins in mammalian cells, SIRT1 may underlie the transcriptional repression activity of CTIP proteins. The following results support the hypothesis that SIRT1 may underlie the mechanism(s) of CTIP-mediated transcriptional repression. First, CTIP-mediated transcriptional repression was inhibited, at least partially, by nicotinamide, an inhibitor of the NAD⁺-dependent, TSA-insensitive HDACs. Second, the decrease in levels of acetylated histones H3 and/or H4 at the promoter region of a reporter gene was observed upon overexpression of CTIP proteins, and this effect was inhibited, at least partially, by nicotinamide. Third, endogenous SIRT1 was recruited to the promoter template of a reporter gene in mammalian cells upon overexpression of CTIP proteins. Fourth, SIRT1 enhanced the transcriptional repression mediated by CTIP proteins and this enhancement required the catalytic activity of SIRT1. Finally, SIRT1 enhanced the deacetylation of template-associated histones H3 and/or H4 in CTIP-transfected cells. In summary, results described herein strongly suggest that CTIP-mediated transcriptional repression involves the recruitment of SIRT1 to the template, at which the TSA-insensitive, but nicotinamide-sensitive histone deacetylase catalyzes deacetylation of promoter-associated histones H3 and/or H4. These results contribute additional understanding to the molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional activity of CTIP proteins, which might be helpful for identification and characterization of the target genes under the control of CTIP proteins in cells of hematopoietic system and/or the central nervous system.
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