Phenotypic variation in diploid and tetraploid populations of Claytonia perfoliata (s.l.) (Portulacaceae) Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/bn9999538

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  • Meiotic chromosome counts from 200 populations of Claytonia (Montia) perfoliata (sensu lato) reveal a polyploid pillar complex based on three morphologically different, chemically distinct, and geographically defined diploids. The basic chromosome number is x=6. Diploid C. perfoliata Willdenow with linear juvenile leaves and deltoid mature basal leaves ranges southeastward from the Coast Ranges of California, through the desert ranges of southeastern Arizona, to high elevation fir forests of southern Mexico. In contrast, diploid C. rubra (Howell) Tidestrom occurs in drier montane and transmontane coniferous woodlands of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges. It has basal leaves that vary ontogenetically from rhombic to deltoid. Diploid C. parviflora Hooker is Sierra Nevadan and its juvenile and mature basal leaves are all linear. Another entity allied to C. perfoliata is C. perfoliata ssp. viridis (Davidson) Fellows, which has chromosome numbers of 2n=24 and 36. Because of its linear, unfused cauline leaves, this subspecies was formerly thought to be related to C. spathulata Hooker; however, its seed coat and elaiosomes, viewed by scanning electron microscopy, are like those of C. perfoliata in all significant characteristics. Progeny of field collected tetraploids resembling C. perfoliata and C. rubra diploids were grown under uniform regimes of light, temperature, and moisture for comparison with their diploid counterparts. Each family of progeny was indistinguishable from its parent, implying a high degree of self-fertilization in nature. Comparisons of pollen-ovule ratios and observations of flower structure indicate that diploid C. parviflora is facultatively xenogamous while the other two diploid species are prevailingly autogamous. Phytochemical diversity in flavonol aglycones and glycosylation pattern is greatest between diploid species. Intraspecific variation both within and between diploid populations is merely quantitative. Evolutionary diversification appears to have occurred at the tetraploid level.
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