Nanomaterials are expected to enable significant advances in several technological fields in coming years. Among them, electronics has emerged as one of the most likely benefactors from the ability to control matter on the nanometer-scale. For many electronic devices synthesized nanomaterials must be integrated into thin film structures. Vapor-based deposition methods are currently the dominant technology for achieving the majority of these thin films, however solution-based approaches have gained significant interest in recent years for the potential for cheaper, faster and more efficient methods of deposition. In order to obtain functional electronic thin films via solution routes significant research has been invested in developing the synthetics methods, characterizing the as-synthesized nanomaterials and developing thin film integration strategies. This dissertation explores each of the above steps using three different material systems. CuInSe₂ nanoparticles were synthesized using a microwave-assisted approach where the precursor chemistry was designed to optimize energy input and control over reaction conditions. The nanoparticle inks were characterized for size, structure, composition and optical properties as potential precursors to thin film solar cells. The inorganic aqueous-based system Hf(OH)[subscript 4-2x-2y](O₂)[subscript x](SO₄)[subscript y]∙qH₂O (HafSOx) was investigated in the context of its promising nanopatterning capabilities. The material was characterized at different steps of the patterning process, ranging from solution precursors to final nanopatterns, to understand key factors driving patterning performance in this system. Finally, an aqueous-based approach was developed for the deposition of thin films of Ga[subscript 2-x]W[subscript x/2]O[subscript 3-δ] as a candidate low dielectric constant material. These films were characterized for structure, composition, optical properties and dielectric performance. Together, these studies should serve to advance the emerging field of solution-based electronics.