Evaluation of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) meal as a feedstuff for rabbits, poultry and sheep Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/bz60d064h

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  • Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is a winter annual oilseed crop native to the Pacific Coast states. Seven experiments were conducted to evaluate extracted meadowfoam meal (MFM) as a feedstuff for poultry, rabbits and sheep. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate MFM as a protein supplement for broiler chicks and weanling rabbits. In experiment 1, chicks were fed diets in which 30% of the dietary protein was supplied by raw, steam-cooked (SC), SC plus 3% sodium carbonate (SC+), or aqueous acetone extracted (EXT) MFM. Weight gains and feed efficiency were severely depressed (P<0.01), with 60% mortality, for birds fed the raw MFM, primarily due to refusal to consume the diet. Performance of other treatments was similar to controls. Liver and thyroid weights at 6 weeks were increased (P<0.01) on SC and SC+ MFM diets, but organ weights on EXT-MFM were similar to controls. In experiment 2, chicks were fed diets in which SC-MFM isonitrogenously replaced 50% of the soybean meal in the control diet. Treatments were dietary additions of iodine, iodinated casein, and lysine. Weight gains and feed efficiency were reduced (P<0.01) on all diets containing SC-MFM. Performance on SC-MFM without dietary additions varied less than 0.5% between experiment 1 and 2. Liver weights were increased (P<0.01) on all diets containing SC-MFM, and thyroid weights were increased on all treatments (P<0.01) except for the iodinated casein addition, indicating that iodinated casein was effective in overcoming the goitrogenic effect of MFM. In experiment 3, weanling rabbits were fed diets in which SC-MFM replaced 25, 50, 75 and 100% and raw MFM replaced 25-50% of the alfalfa and soybean meal in the control diet. These levels corresponded to 20, 40, 60 and 80% of the dietary protein being supplied by MFM. Weight gains and feed efficiency were similar to controls when SC-MFM was added at the 25% replacement level, and decreased approximately 12 and 28% at the 50 and 75% levels respectively. Performance was very poor at the 100% replacement level due to a reluctance to consume the diets. At the 25 and 50% replacement levels, raw MFM decreased weight gains by 18 and 26% (P<0.05), and feed efficiency by 22 and 20% (P<0.05) compared to controls. The results suggest that rabbit performance also is improved by steam cooking MFM, although the differences in performance on raw and SC-MFM were not as dramatic as with broiler chicks. In short term feeding trials, SC-MFM appears to be a satisfactory feedstuff for broiler chicks and weanling rabbits when incorporated at moderate dietary levels. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate MFM as a protein supplement for sheep. In experiment 1, a digestion trial was conducted with lambs comparing raw and steam-cooked (SC) MFM with cottonseed meal (CSM). Raw MFM reduced (P<0.01) the apparent digestibility of energy, dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber and ash by 4, 6, 8, 52 and 55% respectively compared to CSM. Steam cooking caused additional (nonsignificant) reductions of all values except fiber and ash. In experiment 2, a growth trial was conducted with lambs comparing diets in which raw MFM replaced 50 to 100% of the CSM in the control diet. No reduction (P>.05) in weight gain or feed efficiency was evident at either replacement level. In experiment 3, a finishing trial was conducted comparing MFM and CSM as the supplemental protein source. No differences in weight gain, feed efficiency, or backfat thickness resulted but a slight improvement in dressing percentage (P<0.05) on the MFM diet was found. Histological evaluation of thyroid, liver and kidney showed no specific changes caused by MFM. In experiment 4, ewes consumed raw MFM during the last 7-9 weeks of pregnancy; no differences (P>.05) in serum thyroid hormone values were found between treatment and controls. However, one of seven ewes gave birth to a lamb with a goiter after 9 weeks on the MFM diet. The results of these experiments indicated that raw MFM is a satisfactory feedstuff for growing lambs when used at moderate levels, but should not be fed to pregnant ewes until further research can resolve the problem of goiter development in newborn lambs. Overall, MFM appears to be a satisfactory protein supplement for poultry, rabbits and sheep when incorporated into diets to provide approximately 30% of the dietary protein. Until further research can resolve whether MFM is safe for laying hens, breeding does and pregnant ewes, the use of MFM as a feedstuff should be restricted to use in animals destined for slaughter.
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