Evaluation of bamboo as livestock forage and applications of Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria products in agriculture Public Deposited

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  • Byproducts of bamboo processing, such as leaves and branches, may have potential as a livestock feedstuff. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seasonal changes in proximate composition of several bamboo species and reed canarygrass, and subsequently determine the digestibility of bamboo in ponies. Monthly samples of Phyllostachys bissetii, Phyllostachys henon, Sasa pumila, and reed canarygrass were evaluated for dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content over one year. Dry matter, ash, and CP for the bamboos and reed canarygrass were significantly influenced by an interaction between time of sampling and forage type (P<.0001; Extra-SS F-test). There were no interaction, quadratic, or linear effects of time on EE (P>.10; Extra-SS F-test). Neutral detergent fiber and ADF for all forages also were not affected by interactions or quadratic terms; however, a linear explanation of trends was significant. Two adult pony mares were used in a crossover design experiment to evaluate DM, CP, ADF, and NDF digestibility (DMD, CPD, ADFD, and NDFD, respectively) of the temperate bamboo, P. bissetii. The diets consisted of either l-inch chopped bamboo or grass hay. Feces were collected over 5-d periods after adaptation to diets. Dry matter digestibility, CPD, ADFD, and NDFD of the forages were generally below 30% in both ponies, with the CPD of bamboo being the only exception (75.4% for Pony A and 59.6% for Pony B). Acid detergent ash and acid detergent lignin values obtained for bamboo fed during both fecal collection periods were 2.9% and 3.6%, and 10.0% and 11.1%, respectively. The digestibility results indicate that bamboo foliage is similar in feed value to low-quality grass hay, with a DMD of approximately 30%. Feces from the two pony mares used in the previous in vivo experiment were collected to provide a source of inoculum for the in vitro dry matter disappearance {IVDMD) determination of four forages. Feedstuffs analyzed included bamboo fed during the two fecal collection periods of the previous in vivo experiment, as well as orchard grass hay and alfalfa hay. The effect of different levels (0, 250, 500, 750, 1500, and 3000 ppm) of Yucca schidigera extract (YE) on IVDMD of the bamboos and hays was determined. Addition of either 250 or 500 ppm YE did not affect bamboo IVDMD, whereas 3000 ppm decreased the digestibility of Bamboo Band increased that of orchard grass hay. Variable responses were seen when Bamboo B was treated with 750 ppm YE. No effect on alfalfa hay IVDMD was seen at any treatment level. The effects of YE treatment on feedstuffs in vitro are variable depending upon treatment level and type of forage evaluated. Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria products were evaluated for their capacity to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry excreta. Yucca extract (YE), quillaja extract (QE), yucca ultra (YU), quillaja ultra (QU), yucca powder (DK-30), and quillaja powder (QCP) were evaluated at 0, 20, and 200 μL (mg for powders) per 5 g of excreta (wet wt.). Saponin, non-saponin, tannin, and non-tannin fractions of YE and QE (200 μL/5 g excreta) were also evaluated for ammonia reduction. Treatment with 200 μL QE/5 g excreta significantly reduced ammonia emissions when compared to all other products at either treatment level (P<.0001). All other treatments within the same level, but between different products were not significantly different from each other or the control (P>.05), except for DK-30. The higher treatment level (200 μL/5 g excreta) for all products combined was more effective (P<.0001) in reducing ammonia than 20 μL, which is to be expected. Treatment with the extracted fractions at 200 μL/5 g excreta were significantly different (P<.05) from each other when product type was not taken into account, except when comparing the percent ammonia reduction from carbohydrate treatment to that of the tannin fraction. Comparison of product means with all tannin, saponin, non-tannin, and non-saponin treatments combined were significantly different (P<.05). Pairwise comparisons of treatment fraction and product could not be obtained in the Mixed Linear Model. Of all standard products, QE reduced ammonia the most. The tannin-free component from both YE and QE appeared to be particularly effective in reducing emissions, with that of QE having the greater percent reduction. The reduced ammonia emissions observed when the non-saponin, and particularly the non-tannin fraction of YE and QE were applied to poultry excreta indicate the need for further investigation into determining the active compound in the non-saponin liquid.
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