Acclimatization of in vitro apple and plum trees to low relative humidity Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/d504rn87w

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  • Acclimatization of in vitro apples and plums was examined in four studies: l) Leaf anatomy and water stress of aseptically cultured 'Pixy' plum grown under different environments, 2) Acclimatization of aseptically cultured 'Mac 9' apples to low relative humidity, 3) Stomatal functioning of aseptically cultured 'Mac 9' apple leaves in darkness, mannitol, ABA, and CO₂, and W) Stomatal anatomy and the duration of acclimatization of in vitro 'Mac 9' apples. Leaf anatomy was examined using light microscopy. Acclimatization was observed by opening culture jar lids and measuring relative water content, percent of closed stomata in drying studies, darkness studies, and percent survival after a transplant study. Stomatal responses to darkness, mannitol, ABA, and CO₂ were evaluated by the percent of closed stomata. Stomatal anatomy was examined in light and scanning electron microscopy. Leaf anatomy of in vitro plants was significantly different from that of greenhouse plants. In vitro leaves had a single layer of ovoid shaped, small, openly spaced palisade cells. Greenhouse leaves had one to two layers of oblong, significantly longer, closely packed palisade cells. The % mesophyll air space was significantly greater in in vitro than greenhouse leaves. In vitro plants had less epicuticular wax than did greenhouse leaves. The stomatal anatomy, however, of in vitro and greenhouse leaves was similar. No structural differences, which could prevent closure of in vitro stomata, were observed. Less than 10 % of in vitro stomata closed after drying, darkness, mannitol, ABA, or CO₂ treatment; from 40 to 98 % of treated greenhouse stomata closed. Lack of in vitro leaf stomatal closure caused significant water, loss when plants were transferred to low RH. In vitro leaves lost 50 % water, a critical injury level, in 30 min; greenhouse leaves required 90 min. Humidity acclimatization involved development of a stomatal closure mechanism. In vitro plants were acclimatized to low RH within 1 week in jars with lids removed. Open jars of in vitro plants acclimatized after 4 to 5 days exposure to 45 % EH or after 2 days exposure to 65 % RH.
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