|Abstract or Summary
- The nomenclatural history of Gomphus sensu lato began with Persoon in
1797. Over 200 years species of Gomphus sensu lato have been variously classified
also under Cantharellus, Craterellus, Chloroneuron, Chlorophyllum,
Gloeocantharellus, Nevrophyllum, and Turbinellus.
Species of Gomphus sensu lato have been historically characterized as
having aboveground fruiting, fleshy basidiomata with funnel- or fan-shaped pilei.
They are mainly known from North America and Europe but also in parts of Asia,
Australasia, Africa, and Central and South America.
Parsimony and maximum likelihood (MCMC) analyses of the nuclear large
subunit ribosomal DNA (nuc-25S-rDNA), mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal
DNA (mit-12S-rDNA), and mitochondrial atp6 DNA (mit-atp6-DNA) combined
sequences revealed Gomphus sensu lato to be non-monophyletic. This resulted in
the recombination of its species into 4 genera: Gomphus sensu stricto,
Gloeocantharellus, Phaeoclavulina, and Turbinellus.
Gomphus sensu stricto currently contains only 3 species: G. brunneus, G.
clavatus, and G. crassipes. Gloeocantharellus is composed of 10 agaricoidgomphoid
species. Phaeoclavulina has 41 species: 6 formerly in Gomphus sensu
lato and 35 previously assigned to Ramaria subgenus Echinoramaria. Turbinellus
has 5 species distributed mainly in the northern hemisphere.
Species of Gomphus sensu lato have long been recognized as close related
to other members of the Gomphales and to the orders Gautieriales, Hysterangiales,
and Phallales and the families Geastraceae and Sphaerobolaceae. Phylogenetic
analyses of the three combined loci described above suggested the cantharelloidgomphoid
morphology, the lignicolous substrate affinity, and the presence of clamp
connections as ancestral for the order Gomphales. These features were
independently gained and lost several times during the evolution of these fungi.
Ecological studies of G. clavatus and T. floccosus indicate some ecosystem
components are directly associated with their distribution in the forests of the
Pacific northwestern USA. Gomphus clavatus is related to volume of coarse woody
debris (CWD). In other words, the probability (odds) of its occurrence increases
with the volume of CWD. Turbinellus floccosus, on the other hand, is related to
both volume of well-decayed CWD and stand age. The older the stand and the
higher the volume of CWD in late stages of decomposition, the higher the
probability (odds) of finding it.