Examining the Implementation of Inclusive Extracurricular Athletics by Physical Education Teachers Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/dr26z310n

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  • Current literature supports the benefits of participation in extracurricular activities(Barnett & Weber, 2008). However, a report from the U.S. Government AccountabilityOffice (GAO) found that students with disabilities participated in athletics to varyingdegrees, but at consistently lower rates than students without disabilities (US GovernmentAccountability Office, 2010). In January 2013, in response to this report, the Departmentof Education released a policy statement in the form of a Dear Colleague letter clarifyingthe guarantee of equal accessibility based on Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of1973 as it applies to extracurricular physical activities for schools that receive federalfunds. The current study sought to a) examine the awareness and implementation of anequal opportunity policy regarding inclusive extracurricular athletics for students withdisabilities and b) explore the utility of integrated frameworks that built off the Theory ofPlanned Behavior (TPB) and evaluate which was able to better predict inclusivebehaviors of physical educators. Two hundred sixty-nine physical educators from acrossthe United States participated in an online survey assessing attitude, subjective norms,perceived behavioral control, intention, implementation intention, task efficacy, andbarrier efficacy toward inclusion in extracurricular athletics.The first manuscript examined teachers’ awareness of the policy and factorsaffecting their behavior regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities inextracurricular athletics. Teachers’ awareness was analyzed using percentages, 95%confidence intervals and Chi-square tests, while behavior used interclass correlations andseparate hierarchical regressions. Current channels of communication were effective, asthe majority of the teachers were aware of the policy, but more could be done to reach theremaining respondents (over 30%) who were still unaware. Undergraduate courseworkwas significantly related to physical educator teachers’ awareness of the policy. Theresults support the importance of undergraduate adapted physical education coursework.Results of the hierarchical regression revealed that intention, implementation intention,task efficacy, barrier efficacy, and coaching status significantly influenced behavior.Utilization of common physical education curricula might provide teachers anopportunity to practice inclusion techniques and promote sport participation by allowingstudents with disabilities to develop their motor skills.In order to successfully implement the inclusive extracurricular athletics policy,the programs should be based on a theoretical foundation. The purpose of the secondmanuscript was to compare four different conceptual models to determine which one fitthe data the best and better predicted physical education teachers’ implementation ofinclusive extracurricular athletics. Path analyses were used to evaluate the TPB (Ajzen,1991) and three independent integrated models (Jin, 2012; Pawlowski, 2016; Roberts,Maddison, Magnusson, & Prapavessis, 2010). Results indicated that none of the modelsmet all the goodness of fit criteria; however, Jin (2012) met 3 of 4 specified criteria. Theaddition of implementation intention and self-efficacy in the three proposed integratedmodels by Pawlowski (2016), Roberts et al. (2010), and Jin (2012) similarly explained asubstantially greater amount of behavior than the TPB alone, R2 = .35, .37, .36 and .11,respectively. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of implementation intentionand self-efficacy and examine the arrangement of relationships in the proposed integratedframework. Future work should also examine those directly involved with extracurricularathletics and explore ways to reach those who remain unaware of the policy.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Steven Van Tuyl(steve.vantuyl@oregonstate.edu) on 2017-08-01T23:35:32Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 2license_rdf: 1536 bytes, checksum: df76b173e7954a20718100d078b240a8 (MD5)SiebertErinA2017.pdf: 2396265 bytes, checksum: 0e58014f4dd5e9c9189f27dacdf13d56 (MD5)
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