The role of ethanol and certain ethyl esters in the fruity flavor defect of Cheddar cheese Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/dz010t152

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  • During the course of ripening, Cheddar cheese frequently develops a flavor defect described as fruity. Recent work has indicated that the use of certain starter cultures ultimately results in the development of the defect as the cheese ages. The flavor compounds responsible for the defect, however, have not been elaborated. The purpose of this investigation was to isolate and identify the components responsible for the fruity flavor defect and to evaluate the role of certain cheese starter cultures in the development of the defect. Since the fruity character of the defect is apparent in the aroma of the cheese, the compounds responsible for the defect were expected to be reasonably volatile. Volatile constituents were isolated by a distillation technique from fat expressed from a typically fruity cheese by centrifugation. The volatile constituents were then separated by gas-liquid chromatography. By monitoring the odor of the effluent stream of the column, it was possible to determine which components had fruity odors, and these were subsequently identified by mass spectral analysis and coincidence of retention time with the authentic compounds. Ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate were found to be the only compounds with detectable fruity odors. The volatiles from the fat of four cheeses possessing varying degrees of the defect and their matching non-fruity controls were analyzed by a gas entrainment, on-column trapping, gas-liquid chromatographic technique. The manufacturing and curing conditions of each fruity cheese and its matching control were identical, except for the use of different starter cultures. Ethanol, ethyl butyrate, and ethyl hexanoate were more abundant in each of the fruity samples. The approximate concentration range of these compounds was as follows: In fruity cheese; ethanol 400 to 2,040 ppm, ethyl butyrate 1.6 to 24 ppm, ethyl hexanoate 0.9 to 25 ppm. In non-fruity cheese; ethanol 36 to 320 ppm, ethyl butyrate 0.7 to 4.7 ppm, ethyl hexanoate 0.3 to 2.2 ppm. In ten commercial Cheddar cheeses selected at random from the market, the concentration of ethanol ranged from 5.5 to 620 ppm. Single-strain cultures of Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus diacetilactis, and Streptocococcus cremoris as well as three mixedstrain commercial cultures were evaluated for ethanol and acetaldehyde production in non-fat milk medium. Among the single-strain cultures there appeared to be no correlation between ethanol production and species, although considerable variation was noted for strains within a species. The mixed-strain cultures were designated A, B, and C. Cultures B and C had been implicated in the development of the fruity flavor defect in Cheddar cheese, while culture A produced normal cheese of good quality. Cultures B and C produced approximately 40 times more ethanol than culture A when incubated in non-fat milk medium for one month at 7°C. Certain single-strain cultures and the three mixed-strain cultures were tested for their ability to reduce acetaldehyde and propanal, and to catalyze the formation of ethyl butyrate when ethanol and butyric acid were provided as substrates. Acetaldehyde and propanal were reduced to the corresponding alcohols by all cultures, but the formation of ethyl butyrate was not observed in any culture. A good correlation between high levels of ethanol and high levels of ethyl butyrate and ethyl hexanoate in the fruity cheeses suggests that the quantity of ethanol present in the cheese may determine the amount of ester formed. Further, starters resulting in the defect produced considerably more ethanol than cultures resulting in normal cheese when incubated at 7°C, a normal temperature for curing Cheddar cheese. This observation adds weight to the hypothesis that certain cultures are directly responsible for the defect.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-01-06T22:44:38Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 BILLSDONALD1966.pdf: 1203605 bytes, checksum: ca8bd0960d67a8269d7648dda5bd0a40 (MD5)
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-01-17T21:16:19Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 BILLSDONALD1966.pdf: 1203605 bytes, checksum: ca8bd0960d67a8269d7648dda5bd0a40 (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2012-01-17T21:16:19Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 BILLSDONALD1966.pdf: 1203605 bytes, checksum: ca8bd0960d67a8269d7648dda5bd0a40 (MD5) Previous issue date: 1966-02-18

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