Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

Perceptual characteristics of selected acidulants by different sensory and multivariate methods Public Deposited

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  • The taste qualities of acidulants have not been studied in detail despite the fact that they are widely used by the food industry. Studies on characterizing the sensory properties of organic and inorganic acids are very limited. Reported studies are commonly on threshold, equi-sour and the time intensity values of sourness. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the sensory properties of selected acidulants by different sensory and multivariate methods. First, the technique of Free-Choice Profiling was applied in order to characterize the sensory profile of some selected acids (adipic, citric, fumaric, glucono-delta-lactone, hydrochloric, lactic, malic, phosphoric, quinic, succinic, tartaric, citric:fumaric, citric:malic and fumaric:malic) on a weight (0.08% w/v or v/v) basis. Results analyzed through Generalized Procrustes Analysis indicate that on a weight basis (w/v or v/v), acids differed in their flavor and taste dynamics. Likewise, acids were described differently by individual panelists. Second, the sourness power functions of the selected acidulants were generated from five molar concentrations by magnitude estimation involving 16 trained panelists. Equi-sour concentrations were determined by regressing the log of the rescaled response (sensory) on the log of the stimuli (physical). The calculated equi-sour levels ranged from 0.48 ml/L for HCl to 2.34 g/L for glucono-delta-lactone when citric add was set at 1.0 g/L. These theoretical equi-sourness were then tested by using an alternative sensory method, the directional difference from control test. Third, the sensory profile of the acidulants at their equi-sour levels was characterized using two sensory methods, free-choice profiling and the conventional descriptive analysis. The former was analyzed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis while the latter was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis. The two sensory methods gave similar patterns of information regarding the add samples. The similarities of several organic acids and their mixtures were very evident. Hydrochloric and phosphoric acids were astringent while succinic add was bitter and had a monosodium glutamate taste. It was concluded that adds had other sensory properties aside from sourness that must be considered in a given food application.
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