Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

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  • Six Tertiary rock units are exposed in the Buster Creek-Nehalem Valley area. They are, from oldest to youngest: upper Eocene Tillamook Volcanics; upper Eocene Cowlitz Formation; upper Eocene Keasey Formation; upper Eocene Vesper Church formation (informal); upper Eocene to Oligocene Pittsburg Bluff Formation; and middle Miocene Depoe Bay Basalt. The Tillamook Volcanics is composed of basaltic andesite subaerial flows (SiO2 54.19% to 55.67%) and volcanic debris flows. The platy jointed subaerial flows are generally porphyritic with a pilotaxitic groundmass; a few aphyric flows with well defined flow banding are present. Highly vesicular flow tops typically show alteration of ilmenite to leucoxene producing a diagnostic bleached white appearance. Debris flows are comprised of very poorly sorted, angular, volcanic and minor sedimentary rock clasts in a mud matrix. Commonly this lithology is intruded by porphyritic and vesicular dikes. Major oxides of the Tillamook basaltic andesites suggest that these volcanic rocks may have erupted in an oceanic island "spreading center" environment. The Cowlitz Formation unconformably overlies the Tillamook Volcanics in the study area. This formation is divided into five informal members: a basal basaltic andesite conglomerate; a unit of interbedded micaceous arkese, volcanic lithic arenite and mudstone; a thick structureless mudstone; rhythmically laminated turbidite sandstone and siltstone; and a thick upper arkosic sandstone. The basal conglomerate represents a fluvial braided stream to high energy marine shoreline environment. The finer grained middle members indicate a deepening up sequence. The upper sandstone member is a micaceous, well-sorted, hummocky bedded, porous, very friable sandstone deposited in a high energy storm-dominated shelf to nearshore environment. The upper sandstone member of the Cowlitz Formation ("Clark and Wilson sand" of the Mist gas field) is the current target of active drilling in adjacent areas by several petroleum companies. This upper sandstone and lower arkosic sandstones represent favorable targets in contact with organic-rich, but immature, source rocks in potential fault bounded structural highs and erosional pinchouts in the northern part of the study area. The Narizian to Refugian Keasey Formation is represented by the Jewell member (informal), in the study area. The Jewell member, a well-bedded to laminated, tuffaceous, indurated mudstone, unconformably overlies the more extensively faulted Cowlitz Formation. Upper slope water depths of 200-600 m are indicated by foraminiferal and molluscan assemblages. A lithologically distinct and mappable turbidite unit crops out in the study area and is informally named in this thesis the Vesper Church formation. The Vesper Church formation represents west- to northwest-trending turbidite-filled "sea gullies" deposited at bathyal depths (1,000-1,500 m) on the lower slope. Thin-bedded channelized turbidites with Bouma c, d and e sequences and local thick amalgamated sandstones characterize this unit. The upper Eocene (Refugian) Pittsburg Bluff Formation conformably overlies the Vesper Church formation. Molluscan assemblages from the basal part of this formation indicate water depths of 20-200 m; thus, a significant shallowing episode between the Vesper Church and Pittsburg Bluff formations is indicated. Thick, bioturbated, glauconitic to fine-grained tuffaceous sandstone and sandy mudstone suggest an inner to middle (possibly outer) continental shelf depositional environment for the Pittsburg Bluff strata. Following a period of high-angle northeast trending faulting, two middle Miocene Depoe Bay Basalt dikes intruded the sedimentary formations exposed in the area. The reversely polarized Northrup Creek dike can be traced over 8.5 km and has a paleomagnetic declination of 170° and a steep inclination of -74°, possibly a result of secular variation of the geomagnetic pole during cooling of the dike through its Cuire temperature (Nelson, 1983). These aphanitic to sparsely micro-porhyritic tholeiitic basalts are chemically identical to the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia Plateau. A recent hypothesis by Beeson et al. (1979) suggests that all Miocene coastal basalts represent the distal ends of subaerial Columbia River basalts which reached the Miocene shoreline and intruded or "invaded" soft marine sediments. The reversed stratigraphic order of high and low MgO Depoe Bay (Grande Ronde) basaltic sills intruding Keasey and Cowlitz strata, as much as 1600 m below the surface in the petroleum exploration well Quintan_a Watzek 30-1 Watzek 30-1 in this study area, illustrates a complicating factor in the emplacement mechanism if these are "invasive" intrusions. In late middle Miocene the northern Oregon Coast Range anticline was formed, possibly in response to a period of underthrusting (Snavely et al., 1980b). Contemporaneously, a second set of left-lateral and right-lateral conjugate faults (N55°E and N55°W) cut the middle Miocene basalt dikes. This faulting may be related to north-south compression and clockwise rotation of western Oregon and southwest Washington associated with the oblique subduction of the Juan De Fuca Plate beneath the North American Plate as suggested by Magill et al. (1981) and Coe and Wells (1982).
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  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2008-07-16T18:42:17Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 4 Olbinski_James_S_1983_Plate1.jpg: 2416821 bytes, checksum: 23fdb95ee73ff4e7dcca94b3d0686bb9 (MD5) Olbinski_James_S_1983.pdf: 4138160 bytes, checksum: 312df505009de6709b3314276a5a9ee2 (MD5) Olbinski_James_S_1983_Plate2.jpg: 2208563 bytes, checksum: a175d154b1e3bf6c505f028370eb1e6a (MD5) Olbinski_James_S_1983_Plate3.jpg: 10092569 bytes, checksum: e20e783c571674c5c1fa1810bc33b51b (MD5)
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Linda Kathman(linda.kathman@oregonstate.edu) on 2008-07-16T18:41:10Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 4 Olbinski_James_S_1983_Plate1.jpg: 2416821 bytes, checksum: 23fdb95ee73ff4e7dcca94b3d0686bb9 (MD5) Olbinski_James_S_1983.pdf: 4138160 bytes, checksum: 312df505009de6709b3314276a5a9ee2 (MD5) Olbinski_James_S_1983_Plate2.jpg: 2208563 bytes, checksum: a175d154b1e3bf6c505f028370eb1e6a (MD5) Olbinski_James_S_1983_Plate3.jpg: 10092569 bytes, checksum: e20e783c571674c5c1fa1810bc33b51b (MD5)
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