A comparative analysis of aggression by active male participants in intramural and open recreation basketball at Oregon State University Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/ff3658442

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  • As an increase in Americans seek their leisure experience in rationalized forms of play, certain symptoms of non-enjoyment, non-flow achievement are present; i.e., aggression. This relationship between aggression and rationalized play has widely manifested in university intramural sports settings. The review of literature provides the logical development for this relationship and indicates the need for research pertaining to this phenomena. The present research study is the initial investigation designed to compare the highly rationalized intramural sports setting with the more ludus oriented university open recreational sports setting in regard to aggression. It was necessary for the investigator to design a method and instrument that would be used to collect the data required for the investigation. An observation form, to be employed by two trained observers, was developed to obtain the extent of verbal, physical, and combined verbal and physical aggression directed towards officials, opponents, spectators, and team members. The research method and data gathering instrument were randomly imposed upon 15 minute intervals of 25 different intramural "B" level men's basketball games (10 in 1986 and 15 in 1987) and 15 minute intervals of 25 different open recreational basketball games (10 in 1986 and 15 in 1987) at Oregon State University. All subjects were male students at Oregon State University who actively participated on a team in either intramural basketball at the "B" level, or open recreation basketball. The data were subjected to mean and percentage comparisons. One hypothesis was stated for testing. The stated hypothesis was directed toward obtaining objectives set by the investigator for the present study. The number of aggressive acts observed in each setting was analyzed by comparing means and percentages. Investigation of the results indicated a higher number of aggressive acts per active participant in the intramural sports setting than in the open recreational sports setting. In 1986, 58 acts of aggression were observed in the intramural basketball games compared to 11 aggressive acts in the open recreation basketball games. Additionally, there were an average of .58 aggressive acts per active participant in the intramural basketball games and an average of .11 aggressive acts per active participant in the open recreational basketball games. A more extensive analysis of the 1986 data revealed that of the 58 aggressive acts observed in the intramural basketball games, 81% were directed towards the officials, 19% were directed towards the opponents, and 0% were directed towards team members and spectators. In comparison, of the 11 aggressive acts observed in the open recreation basketball games, 100% were directed towards opponents and 0% were directed towards team members and spectators. The results of the 1987 data are consistent with the results in 1986. In 1987, 69 aggressive acts were observed in the intramural basketball games involving 52 active participants or 35% of the total amount of active participants observed in this setting. Of these 69 aggressive acts, 82% were directed towards officials; 15.9% were directed towards opponents; 1.5% were directed towards team members; and 0% were directed towards spectators. In comparison, of the three aggressive acts observed in the open recreation basketball games, 100% were directed towards the opponents involving only 1.3% of all participating in this setting. Zero percent of the aggressive acts were directed towards team members and spectators. In summary, the results of this study are consistent with Rokosz's (1979) results that there is a higher amount of aggression in intramural basketball games that use officials than in basketball games where no officials are present. The results of this study indicated that the high number of intramural basketball games that had aggression and the large number of aggressive acts in them were due to the high number of games and aggressive acts that involved officials.
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