A study of the quantity and distribution of bark debris resulting from log rafting Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/fj2365538

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  • A study was conducted to determine the quantity and distribution of bark debris resulting from log rafting. Three distinct problems were studied: (I) the quantity of bark dislodged from the logs while being placed in the rivers and during transport in log rafts; (2) the percentage of the bark that sinks as a function of time; and (3) the amount of bark and debris in existing benthic deposits. Two major areas were studied covering both fresh and salt water: the Klamath River in South-Central Oregon and the Yaquina River estuary near Newport in Western Oregon. The logs stored in the Klamath River consisted primarily of ponderosa pine, and those in the Yaquina estuary were primarily Douglas fir. Studies by several authors listed high chemical oxygen demands and low dissolved oxygen contents in waters used for the storage of logs. Fish kills have been noted from bark deposits in lakes and streams. Photographic measurements of logs were used to determine the percentage of bark dislodged. For Douglas fir logs approximately 17 percent of the bark is dislodged during unloading and 5 percent during raft transport, for a total of 22 percent. Comparatively, the total for ponderosa pine was only 6 percent. Flotation studies showed a total of 10 percent sinkage in water within one day and 75 percent in two months, regardless of the species. The pine bark sank at a faster rate as compared to the fir bark; primarily due to the smaller size of the pine bark. Core samples were taken in areas free of log rafting, in areas of log raft storage and in areas of log dumping to determine the extent of bark debris in the benthic deposits. Samples consisting of primarily deposited bark had a volatile solids content of about 15 pounds per cubic foot. The average increase in volatile solids content in the log storage areas as compared to the control samples was approximately two pounds of volatile solids per cubic foot. For the log dumping areas this average increase ranged from 0. 5 to 15 pounds of volatile solids per cubic foot. The results of this study indicate clearly that large amounts of bark are added to the water courses used for log storage and that large amounts of bark debris presently exist in the benthic deposits of these water courses.
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