The Second World War was not just a military struggle but also a struggle between two different agriculture, food distribution, and nutrition systems in the United Kingdom and Nazi Germany. At the start of the war, both countries understood that food and nutrition would play an important role and carefully managed their agriculture and food distribution systems to support their military and civilian populations. The United Kingdom’s goal was to feed their entire population throughout the war to survive the German blockade. The Nazi Government’s goal was to gain Lebensraum or “living space” in Eastern Europe and to secure a stable food supply for Germany. The United Kingdom and Nazi Germany both viewed agriculture, food distribution, and nutrition as vital parts of the war and each country managed their systems the best way they thought possible. Based on English-language sources, this thesis compares policies and attitudes toward wartime agricultural production, food distribution, and nutrition in the United Kingdom and Germany during the war. The comparison reveals that these differences were not simply a matter of different access to natural resources; instead, political choices and differences in scientific perspectives shaped official actions by these respective governments.