Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation


Pharmacokinetics of Flunixin in Elephants, Cefovecin in African Lions, and Gamithromycin in Alpacas Public Deposited

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  • Foot pathology is a real problem in captive elephants. Osteoarthritis is the major concern among musculoskeletal disorders and foot health problems for elephants in North America zoos with one-.‐half of Elephants in captivity showing foot health care problems in zoos. A higher ratio of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) is affected by osteoarthritis than African Elephants according to Association of Zoos and Aquarium (AZA). The incidence of arthritis increases as the age of the elephant's increases that often requires therapeutic drug monitoring. Flunixin is the one of most commonly prescribed NSAID agent in elephants. Flunixin is a potent non-.‐steroidal anti-.‐inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX). Flunixin concentration was successfully determined in Asian and African elephants plasma using a developed HPLC-.‐UV method that was validated according to U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. The pharmacokinetics of flunixin was evaluated in both elephant species after administration of low and high doses (0.8 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) using non-.‐compartmental analysis. The flunixin pharmacokinetics showed no significant statistical differences between two elephant species and the maintenance flunixin oral dose, which can manage osteoarthritis in elephants, may be 0.8 mg/kg of body weight. The pharmacokinetic of cefovecin (macrolide-.‐like antibiotic) was evaluated in African lions (Panthera leo) after administration of low and high doses (4 and 8mg/kg) subcutaneously. Cefovecin plasma conacentrations were successfully determined using an HPLC-.‐UV methad that was developed and validated based on FDA bioanalytical requirements. The pharmacokinetics of cefovecin showed that allometric extrapolation (based on animal's weight) of the cefovecin dose from smaller animals (cats, and dogs) to larger animals (lions) was not appropriate. The pharmacokinetics of gamithromycin (long acting antibiotic) was evaluated in Alpaca Plasma, Lung Bronchoalveolar Lavage Cells, Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid, and Plasma Polymorphonuclear Cells after subcutaneous administration. The results indicated that gamithromycin has long elimination half-.‐life in plasma and distributed rapidly into pulmonary components. Gamithromycin remains above or near the minimum bacterial inhibitory concentration at the site of action (lung tissues) for a week.
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