A revision of the North American species of Pactopus Leconte and Trixagus Kugelann (Coleoptera: Throscidae) Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/g445cg735

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  • This study was undertaken to find means of separating the morphologically similar species of North American Trixagus and to bring together information on Trixagus and Pactopus. A key to separate the world's eight genera of extant Throscidae is presented for the first time. A key to the five species of North American Trixagus, as well as illustrations and detailed descriptions of each species, are included to facilitate identification. In addition, detailed distribution records and range maps are provided for each species. No new taxa are proposed, but four species are retained in synonymy after examination of the type specimens. An investigation of external morphology found that color, size, punctation, and pubescence are too variable to be useful characters. Useful characters at the specific level are habitus, number of eye facets, pronoto-elytral ratio, and genitalia. Secondary sexual characteristics are shape of pronotum, size of eyes, and presence of a fringe of setae on the elytra of the males of some species. Sixteen additional structures were investigated. Six new morphological terms are proposed for structures peculiar to Throscidae. Trixagus Kugelann 1794 is adopted in preference to the more commonly used Throscus Latreille 17.96 because the latter is shown to be a junior objective synonym. Two dendrograms show the relationships between North American Trixagus, Aulonothroscus, and Pactopus and between the species of Trixagus and fossil Pactopus. Pactopus is considered more specialized than Trixagus or Aulonothroscus. Methods of collecting throscids that were found to be most effective were beating trees on warm evenings or by processing litter via a berlese funnel. It was found that throscids are capable of clicking in the manner of Elate ridge, despite numerous statements in the literature to the contrary.
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  • File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome) using ScandAll PRO 1.8.1 on a Fi-6770A in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 5.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR.
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