The feeding value of Pacific Northwest grown soybeans for chickens and turkeys Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/g732dc52n

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  • Five separate trials were conducted to test the feeding value of Pacific Northwest grown soybeans for chickens and turkeys. Soybeans were obtained from farms near Walla Walla, Washington and incorporated into rations which were fed to replacement pullets, laying pullets, broiler chickens, turkey poults and market turkeys. These rations were either solvent soybean meal, extruded or raw soybean based and balanced isocalorically and isonitrogenously. Extruded and raw soybean rations fed laying pullets were supplemented with and without added methionine. Similarly, rations fed turkey poults were supplemented with and without added zinc bacitracin and procaine penicillin, and broiler rations with and without zinc bacitracin. In the first experiment, extruded soybeans were found to have essentially the same feeding value as solvent soybean meal for replacement pullets. The observed effects of feeding raw soybeans were delayed sexual maturity, reduced body weight, poor feed conversion, pancreatic hypertrophy and liver atrophy. In the second experiment, laying pullets which were fed either of three soybean rations in the grower phase, were again either fed or switched to solvent soybean meal, extruded or raw soybeans in the layer phase. Again, extruded soybeans were found to be equal in feeding value to solvent soybean meal in terms of supporting good egg production. The observed effects of feeding raw soybeans to laying pullets were poor egg production, poor feed conversion, decreased feed consumption, pancreatic hypertrophy, and liver atrophy. Pullets fed raw soybean in the grower phase produced significantly fewer (P < . 05) eggs in the layer phase even when they were fed solvent soybean meal. Birds fed raw soybean supplemented with methionine produced significantly more (P < . 05) eggs than birds fed raw soybean without supplemental methionine. In the remaining three experiments, the three soybean rations were fed to broiler chickens and growing turkeys. Extruded soybeans were found to be similar in feeding value to solvent soybean meal. Those birds fed extruded soybean and solvent soybean meal rations gained significantly more (P < . 05) and converted feed to body weight significantly better (P < . 05) than those fed raw soybean rations. With turkey poults, the supplementation of zinc bacitracin was found to significantly increase (P < .05) body weights of birds fed extruded soybeans over those fed solvent soybean meal. With broilers, added zinc bacitracin and procaine penicillin did not prove to be beneficial. The observed effects of feeding raw soybeans were reduced body weight, poor feed conversion, wet litter and pancreatic hypertrophy in both species. Additionally, kidney hypertrophy was noted in broilers. Using up to 25 and 33 percent raw soybeans in broiler and market turkey rations, respectively, did not cause any significant growth depression. Under the conditions of this experiment, Pacific Northwest grown soybeans treated by an extrusion process were equal in feeding value, for all ages of poultry, to solvent extracted soybeans. The raw soybeans were found to be inferior to solvent extracted soybeans for feeding poultry.
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