Interactions of Amphorophora agathonica Hottes with raspberry viruses and resistant red and black raspberry Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/g732dd68r

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  • In recent years, red raspberry production in Washington and British Columbia has been severely limited by a newly emerged virus complex that causes symptoms of crumbly fruit. The complex is comprised of three viruses: Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV), Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV) and Raspberry latent virus (RpLV). Both RLMV and RpLV are transmitted by the aphid Amphorophora agathonica Hottes. The objectives of this work were to monitor seasonal phenology of A. agathonica and study the aphids' behavior on infected plants as well as resistant red and black raspberry cultivars. The lower developmental threshold of A. agathonica was calculated to be 2.7°C and field populations in northern Washington began increasing rapidly at approximately 800 growing degree days and peaked at approximately 1000 degree days. Evaluations of aphid performance on infected plants revealed that single infection plants (RLMV or RpLV) and co-infected plants (RLMV+RpLV) significantly increased aphid longevity over the healthy controls, while the co-infected plants also significantly increased aphid fecundity. Electrical penetration graph (EPG) studies of A. agathonica feeding behavior showed no differences in feeding between healthy and infected plants. However, EPG studies revealed two distinct mechanisms of resistance against A. agathonica in red and black raspberry. The red raspberry resistance gene Ag₁ results in extended periods of salivation in the phloem sieve elements with little subsequent phloem ingestion, a behavior commonly associated with plant defense mechanisms related to a phloem recognition factor. Three novel aphid-resistant black raspberry selections were also studied. Aphids feeding on the resistant black raspberries were unlikely to salivate in the phloem sieve elements, which may point to a mechanism that causes aphids to be unable to recognize when they have punctured the sieve elements. Overall, this research discovered new information about A. agathonica biology, feeding behavior, and interactions with viruses that can be incorporated into future management strategies.
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