Evaluation of body composition assessments for a high school wrestling weight certification program Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/gh93h1867

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  • Background: The Oregon Wrestling Weight Monitoring Program establishes the athlete’s minimum wrestling weight (MW) for the season. This program specifies the wrestler’s maximum weight loss rate and was implemented in order to reduce unhealthy weight-cutting behaviors commonly practiced by wrestlers. Aims: (1) To compare differences in percent body fat (%BF) between 3 body composition assessment methods, (2) To examine agreement between 2 hydration assessment methods, (3) To detect the presence of systematic bias in MW-prediction for 2 methods of body composition assessment, compared to a criterion, (4) To gather information pertaining to weight-cutting methods used and the frequency with which these methods were used. Methods: Participants included 55 male and female high school athletes, 18 of whom were wrestlers. Body composition assessment methods included the BODPOD while measuring thoracic gas volume (BPM) (criterion for MW prediction), BODPOD while estimating this volume (BPE), and leg-to-leg- bioelectric impedance analysis (L-BIA). The BODPOD body composition system is a densitometric method similar to hydrostatic weighing, however air displacement is used rather than water displacement. This technique is also referred to as air displacement plethysmography. The systematic bias of BPE and L-BIA were examined. Urine specific gravity (USG) was assessed, as an indicator of hydration level using the dipstick method and an optical refractomer. Wrestlers completed a survey. Results: The 3 methods reported similar %BF values (16.1±8.3, 15.3±8.4, 15.4±7.8) for all athletes (N=51), the subgroup of wrestlers (N=16), and males (N=20), however there was a difference in %BF between L-BIA and BPE and between L-BIA and BPM for females (N=15). Hydration assessment methods did not agree when using the high school USG cutoff (1.025 g•mL-1), and agreed weakly when using the NCAA USG cutoff (1.020 g•mL-1). Systematic bias existed in BPE, and limits of agreement were twice as large in L-BIA compared to BPE. Most wrestlers engaged in weight-cutting behaviors. Conclusion: L-BIA is not recommended as a method for predicting MW because individual differences between L-BIA and BPM spanned multiple weight classes. Investigators recommend that program officials consider using optical refractometers and/or consider adopting the NCAA hydration cutoff (USG < 1.020 g•mL-1) to assess hydration status.
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