Nutritional and biochemical characterization of Moraxella species isolated from fishery sources Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/gm80hz83p

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  • One hundred and fourteen strains of Moraxella species isolated from marine fishery sources were investigated to determine the cause of this organism's predominance in seafood. The nutritional requirements, effect of pH, NaCl concentration, and temperature on growth, utilization of carbohydrates, protein, and lipid, resistance to 12 antibiotics, sensitivity to phenethyl alcohol (PEA), production of PEA, and a study of the deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) of the Moraxella strains were performed. Two strains of Moraxella had a requirement for biotin; most other strains, however, had no requirement for growth factors. The majority of strains had a multiple amino acid requirement which was satisfied by seven amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, valine, alanine, glycine, serine, and hydroxyproline. All strains grew in broth in the pH range of 6.9 to 8.8, with pH limits for growth by any strain being 4.9 to 10.4. All strains grew in the presence of 6% NaCl, with most strains tolerating up to 10%. Ninety five percent of strains tested grew at 5°C and no strain grew at 37°C or above. Thirty percent of all Moraxella strains were able to produce acid from glucose. Xylose and arabinose were oxidized by 17.5 and 1.7% of strains, respectively. Sucrose, fructose, lactose, and galactose were not oxidized. Seven percent of strains were weakly proteolytic while lipolytic activity was not observed in any strain. All Moraxella strains were sensitive to tetracycline (Tc), chlorotetracycline (Ct), oxytetracycline (Ot), streptomycin (St), neomycin (Nm), kanamycin (Km), and nalidixic acid (Na). Half of all strains were resistant to chloramphenicol (Ch) and nitrofurazone (Nf), 36% were resistant to ampicillin (Am), and 70% were resistant to sulfathiazole (Su). Thirty one strains (27.2%) were resistant to 3 IU of penicillin G (Pe), thus, being classified as atypical Moraxella. Atypical Moraxella strains were significantly more resistant to Ch and Am. Moraxella strains were more resistant to PEA than were other gram negative bacteria of fishery origin. At a concentration of 0.82 mmoles PEA/1iter, Moraxella strains were not affected; however, an Arthrobacter strain of marine origin was totally inhibited and marine Pseudomonas strains showed an extended lag period. Moraxella strains produced PEA in concentrations ranging from undetectable to 3.25 mmoles per liter. PEA production was strain dependent and substrate dependent and was not the direct function of the cell concentration. Moraxella strains tested showed a guanine plus cytosine mole percent (G+C mole %) between 42.8 to 44.4. No relationship was observed between G+C mole % and other parameters: penicillin resistance, proteolytic ability, PEA production, or acid production from glucose oxidation. Four factors appear to allow Moraxella to predominate in seafood: NaCl tolerance, the ability to grow at low temperatures, a simple nutritional requirement, and production of PEA.
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