A model for simulating river and reservoir temperatures with applications for anadromous fish management Public Deposited



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  • A problem confronting the Corps of Engineers and other water resources planners in the Pacific Northwest is the prediction of anadromous fish enhancement benefits that would result from a proposed high dam project. These benefits are expected from augmenting natural streamflows with relatively cold reservoir withdrawals. The resulting increased streamflows and decreased river temperatures downstream are expected to sustain larger salmon populations than would occur without an impoundment. The objectives of this study are to develop a computer simulation model for continuously predicting reservoir and downstream temperatures and mass flows for a single high dam system; and to demonstrate how the model could be used in an actual planning situation to provide information on anadromous fish production. The reservoir submodel constructed for this study is based upon the stratified reservoir model developed at M.I.T. A downstream bulk flow river temperature and routing algorithm, solar flux submodel, and several decision submodels are constructed and incorporated into this system. The model permits determination of all values of mass flows, depths, and water temperatures at any designated point in time for specified points along a river, and for specified reservoir elevations. The model structure allows decision routines to be called at each time interval update for determining reservoir withdrawal, the amount of withdrawal from each of three specified reservoir outlets, and the channel withdrawal for irrigation. This model is applied to the proposed 145,000 acre-feet reservoir on the Calapooia River at Holley, Oregon, to investigate the expected trade-offs and product mix between anadromous fish (a function of water temperature and streamflow) and reservoir-based recreation (a function of reservoir elevation). It was found that the river temperatures downstream from the proposed reservoir could not be maintained within the optimum range for Pacific salmon. Further, it was found that the temperatures of the reservoir withdrawals would have a negligible effect upon river temperatures beyond 24 miles downstream from the dam site. An economic analysis suggests that the level of anadromous fish enhancement and recreation benefits predicted by the Corps of Engineers could not be achieved by constructing the proposed Holley project. The model developed in this study is structured so that any water quality parameter, not just temperature, could be simulated with the downstream routing algorithm. The model can also be used to evaluate the operational efficiency of existing multiple objective water projects. In addition, the model structure would make it relatively easy to build additional submodels into the algorithm. For example, the inclusion of a flood control or dynamic fish population submodel would depict a more realistic situation as well as broaden the economic analysis. The computer model structure requires the solution sequence to pass through all relevant subprograms at each time interval update. Thus, calculations covering only one internal time period are made on each pass of a subprogram. This model structure allows for considerable operating flexibility. For example, because all hydrometeorological data are read from subprograms, the model can be operated using either historical or stochastically generated data.
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