Vernalization requirements and seed dormancy of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/hh63t039x

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  • Jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host) infestations in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production regions of the central and western USA result in severe economic losses in the wheat market. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the vernalization requirements of winter wheat, spring wheat, jointed goatgrass, and wheat by jointed goatgrass reciprocal hybrid plants. In field studies, jointed goatgrass plants required more vernalization to produce spikelets and germinable seed than 'Madsen' winter wheat plants. In greenhouse studies, plants of jointed goatgrass populations collected from Oregon and Washington wheat fields required fewer vernalization days to reach the joint stage than Madsen plants. Detailed observations in the greenhouse revealed a longer period between jointing and anthesis for most jointed goatgrass populations that was overlooked in field studies. Vernalization for 6-wk represents the minimum treatment for synchronous reproductive development among jointed goatgrass populations, Madsen winter wheat, and Madsen by jointed goatgrass hybrids, yet the risk of gene transfer might be greater after 7-wk vernalization. In the jointed goatgrass populations tested, there was not selection for a vernalization insensitive growth habit. Because jointed goatgrass spikelets often contain two seed, germination was recorded for primary and secondary positioned seed. Germination of freshly harvested jointed goatgrass seed was promoted by 25/15 C day/night temperatures. However, light and 30/20 C incubation was necessary for maximum germination of non-dormant, primary positioned seed. Both primary and secondary positioned seed within jointed goatgrass spikelets were non-dormant after 16-wk after-ripening at 22 ± 2 C. Under optimum growing conditions, no planting depth selectively allowed wheat germination and emergence while preventing jointed goatgrass germination and emergence. Glume removal did not alleviate dormancy completely in jointed goatgrass seed. Research confirmed jointed goatgrass population polymorphism for vernalization requirements and seed dormancy. Jointed goatgrass reproductive variability might be part of a general purpose genotype strategy to germinate and colonize a wide range of environments. Wheat by jointed goatgrass hybrid plants should be removed from winter and spring wheat fields. Despite a short dormancy period, three or more years of rotation outside of winter annual crops may be necessary to reduce populations of jointed goatgrass.
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