Analysis of heat pump and steam bleed-off systems linked with thermal-electric power plants to supply low-grade heating and cooling Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/hx11xj00k

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  • This thesis analyzes two systems that can meet low-grade heating and/or cooling demands by operating in conjunction with thermal-electric power plants. At the application site, one of the systems, HPS, has water-to-air heat pumps that are connected to the supply and return lines of a plant-to-user loop. During heating, the heat pumps extract energy from the loop carrying the outlet of the power plant condenser cooling water; and in the cooling season, they reject energy to the loop water that is returning to a cooling tower or reservoir. In the other system, designated BOS, the loop always carries in water that is heated to a moderately high temperature at the power plant by steam bled off from the turbines. Then, heating is by direct transfer and cooling is from absorption units that reject waste energy locally. Besides meeting the demands effectively, both systems decrease the overall thermal pollution. The systems and their potential are presented first. Then a general study formulates the performances in terms of the principal variables -- power plant efficiency, power plant condenser temperature, demand size and temperature. Both the thermodynamically ideal and more practical systems are considered. The basic trend in each case is revealed by plotting and comparing the system effectiveness values. This is followed by a much more detailed evaluation of the system in supplying domestic water heating, and comfort heating and cooling to two cities with served populations of 21,500 and 129,000. The analysis includes: (i) models of the cities, (ii) models of the three power plants representative of nuclear (LWR, FBR) and fossil-fueled plants, (iii) actual weather data from three locations in Oregon, (iv) equipment performance data (compressors, absorption chillers, etc.), and (v) other design and energy use data. This information is combined to estimate the maximum, yearly and monthly energy requirements; design of the equipment and distribution network; and the combined system performance. The performances of the systems are compared in terms of (i) the electricity available for other uses after the thermal demands of the city are met and (ii) the net cooling requirements at the power plant site. The economic potentials of the BOS and the HPS are discussed in terms of the plant-city distance that lowers their cost to that of the least-cost conventional alternatives. Finally, the components of the HPS are discussed in sufficient detail so that their individual performance can be balanced for overall performance estimation. A FORTRAN program is developed to simulate the design for hourly performance under various conditions; and the design is improved until the yearly range of all major variables are totally acceptable. In addition to demonstrating the feasibility of the heat pumps in this application, the simulation effort provides a specific engineering design and an improved estimation of its performance.
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