Seedling recruitment of hairy nightshade and other summer annual weeds in irrigated row crops Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/j098zd37j

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  • This study evaluated the effects of tillage system, rotational tillage sequences, and winter seed burial depth on weed seedling recruitment in irrigated cropping systems. Notill (NT) planting of vegetable crops reduced emergence of hairy nightshade by 77 to 99% and Powell amaranth emergence from 50 to 87% compared to conventional tillage (CT) and planting of crops. Cover crops suppressed weed emergence if soils were undisturbed but not if soils were tilled in the spring. Four years of NT vegetable crops reduced summer annual weed density by 48 to 79% at two sites. Rotational tillage sequences that alternated between NT and CT only reduced summer annual weed density if the shorter season crop of snap beans was paired with CT and sweet corn was paired with NT. Hairy nightshade density decreased by 83 to 90% if NT was paired with the longer season crop of sweet corn. Hairy nightshade seedling recruitment at 30.7 C was more than 15 times greater for seeds buried at 6, 13 and 25 cm than when buried at 1 cm in simulated NT. Recruitment potential was low in March and April but increased to a maximum in May and June. Germination rates for seeds buried at 1 cm were lower and mortality and dormancy greater than for seeds buried from 6 to 25 cm during the winter. Protecting the seeds buried at 1 cm from rainfall during the winter increased seedling recruitment from 0 to 2 of 10 buried seeds, but had a negligible effect on seed mortality and dormancy. Treatment of seeds buried at 25 cm with 1 cm soil temperature reduced recruitment from 4.8 to 2.3 of 10 buried seeds at 33.3 C, but did not significantly increase seed mortality or dormancy. Estimates of seed drift using electronic transponders found that 16% of the seeds at 5 cm moved to within the emergence zone for hairy nightshade. Seed drift coupled with the faster germination rate and lower mortality of seeds buried at 12 cm or below predicts that hairy nightshade recruitment will be optimized when soil is tilled in the spring.
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