Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

Exploiting Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum genetic resources : diversity analysis and germplasm development Public Deposited

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https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/j098zd414

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  • Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) could be a source of useful genes for improving cultivated barley. The useful genes present in Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum may be new alleles at described loci, or these may be entirely new genes in the sense that there is limited allelic variation at these loci in the cultivated germplasm pool. This research was directed at gene discovery in wild barley and involved two steps: (i) characterization of diversity using genetic markers and (ii) development and characterization of novel germplasm for gene discovery. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) of known map location were used to survey three representative groups of barley germplasm: a sample of crop progenitor (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) accessions, a group of mapping population parents, and a group of varieties and elite breeding lines. The objectives were to determine the informativeness and utility of SSRs in differentiating and classifying the three sets of barley germplasm. Crop progenitors had the highest number of alleles per SSR locus, followed by mapping population parents and elite breeding lines. The cluster analysis indicated a high level of diversity within the crop progenitor accessions and within the mapping population parents. It revealed a much lower level of diversity within the elite breeding germplasm. A set of Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) representing introgressions of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum genome in to a cultivated barley background were developed using the Advanced Backcross strategy. An accession of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum was the donor parent and the variety "Harrington" was the recurrent parent. The RCSLs were developed via two backcrosses to the recurrent parent followed by six generations of selfing. The genomic architecture of the RCSLs was determined by molecular marker fingerprinting with SSRs. The consequences of introgressions of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum genome segments into the recurrent parent were assessed in terms of inflorescence yield components, malting quality traits, and domestication-related traits. Hordeum spontaneum subsp. spontaneum, despite its overall inferior phenotype, contributed favorable alleles for some characters of agronomic performance. In other cases, the introgressions caused a disruption of the Harrington phenotype, a "reverse genetics" approach to gene discovery.
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