Dissecting induction of cell cleavage Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/jd473058p

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  • Cytokinesis separates replicated chromosomes and cytoplasm into two daughter cells. In animal cells, this is achieved by the formation of a cleavage furrow that bisects the mitotic (or meiotic) spindle. It is known that the mitotic apparatus defines the cell cleavage plane. However, it is not clear how the mitotic apparatus initiates the cleavage furrow. Each part of the mitotic apparatus; namely asters, central spindle (microtubule arrays and the spindle midzone), and chromosomes, has been found capable of inducing a cleavage furrow in certain cell types. Yet it is uncertain which part is the essential source of the signal and whether all parts act in concert. This thesis systematically examines in grasshopper spermatocytes 1) which spindle constituent is the essential source of furrow signal; 2) the impact of microtubules on distribution of actin filaments and positioning of cell cleavage relative to spindle reorganization; 3) the independent role of the spindle midzone relative to microtubules in furrow initiation and ingression. These examinations combine micromanipulation with digital-enhanced polarization microscopy and epifluorescence microscopy, in which mitotic spindles in living cells are mechanically dissected and rearranged as desired as well as microfixed to evaluate and propose models for cell cleavage. This thesis has come to the conclusion that none of structural constituents of the spindle apparatus is essential for cell cleavage induction except microtubules. First, furrow induction occurs regardless of a particular spindle constituent, so long as sufficient microtubules are present to form bipolar arrays. Second, microtubules continuously dictate distribution of actin filaments and positioning of cell cleavage. Asymmetric alterations of spindle microtubules dynamically affect the location of the spindle midzone, distribution of actin filaments, and ultimately position of the cleavage furrow in cells containing a bipolar spindle, monopolar spindle, or half-spindle. Third, actin filaments are distributed to the furrow region by microtubule-mediated transport, but organized by the midzone, which is essential for furrow ingression, but not initiation. These results suggest that during post-anaphase spindle assembly, actin filaments are excluded by bipolar microtubule arrays to the equatorial cell cortex where they bundle into a contractile ring with cytokinetic factors.
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